The following is a list of
references used for the course SS-501, INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS SCIENCE, at the Systems Science Department of SUNY Binghamton in 1990.
Other, specific bibliographic references of books and a selected number of papers can be found in the library database of the Department of Medical Cybernetics and AI at the University of Vienna. A number of more recent books and papers can be found in our bibliography on the complex, evolving systems.
The books with links below can be securely ordered and paid for over the web from Amazon.com, the largest bookstore on the Net.
Key: ** Required
Abraham, Ralph, and Shaw, Chris: (1985) Dynamics: the Geometry
of Behavior, v. I-III, Ariel Press
Excellent graphical introduction to dynamic systems theory.
Ackoff, Russel: (1972) On Purposeful Systems, Aldine Press,
Grand philosophy of human systems as teleological, goal-seeking.
Structure, function, and purpose. Cognitive models and action in
psychology; linguistics and semantics; conflict and cooperation;
Alan, TFH, and Starr, TB: (1982) Hierarchy: Perspective for
Explaining Ecological Complexity, U. Chicago, Chicago
Anderson, PW, and Arrow, KJ et. al.: eds. (1988) Economy as an
Evolving, Complex System, Addison-Wesley, New York
Critical anthology of system economic theory: applied
mathematical techniques, dynamical theory, bounded rationality.
Kauffman on "web searching"; Holland; Ruelle on nonlinear
dynamics; Baum on neural nets.
Angyal, A: (1969) Logic of Systems, Penguin
Arbib, Michael A: (1972) Metaphorical Brain, Wiley, New York,
* Ashby, Ross: (1952) Design for a Brain, Wiley, New York.
A classic book, introducing fundamental systems concepts with
examples related to the brain.
** (1956) Introduction to Cybernetics, Methuen, London
** (1981) Mechanisms of Intelligence: Writings of Ross Ashby/,
..... ed. Roger Conant
Atkin, RH: (1976) Mathematical Structure in Human Affairs,
Introduces Q-analysis, a methodology for identifying structures
in data. The methodology uses some ideas of differential
Auger, Peter: (1990) Dynamics and Thermodynamics in Hier.
Organized Sys., to appear
Aulin, AV: (1989) Foundations of Mathematical System
Dynamics, Pergamon, Oxford
Causal recursion and its application to social science and
economics, fundamental dynamics, self-steering, self-regulation,
origins of life and mind.
* Aulin, AY: (1982) Cybernetic Laws of Social Progress,
Cybernetic social theory, including the Law of Requisite
..... (1989) Foundations of Mathematical Systems Dynamics, Pergamon
Barnsley, MF: (1988) Fractals Everywhere, Academic Press, San
Best text on fractal geometry.
** Bateson, Gregory: (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind,
Ballantine, New York
Bateson's critical essays. For purchase.
..... (1979) Mind and Nature, Bantam, New York
Unlike _Steps to an Ecology of Mind_, _Mind and Nature_ is an
attempt at a coherent, popular statement of Bateson's
Bayraktar, BA, and et. al., : eds. (1979) Education in Systems
Science, Taylor and Francis, London
* Beer, Stafford: (1975) Platform for Change, Wiley, London
Foundational work in management cybernetics.
Bellman, Richard: (1972) Adaptive Control Processes: A Guided
Tour, Princeton U, Princeton
An excellent book covering fundamental concept of systems
Beltrami, Edward: (1987) Mathematics for Dynamic Modeling,
Academic Press, Orlando
Excellent mathematical introduction to dynamic systems theory,
including catastrophe theory. Key results and theorems,
examples. Many typos.
Blalock, HM: (1969) Systems Theory: From Verbal to
Mathematical Formulation, Prentice Hall, Eng.Cliffs NJ
* Blauberg, IV, and Sadovsky, VN: (1977) Systems Theory:
Philosophy and Methodological Problems, Progress, Moscow
One of the best overviews of philosphical and methodological
development in systems theory, both in the Soviet Union and in
Bogdanov, A.: (1980) Essays in Tektology, Intersystems
Translation of historical foundation of systems science.
Booth, TL: (1967) Sequential Machines and Automata Theory,
Wiley, New York
One of the most comprehensive books on finite state machines,
both deterministic and probablistic.
* Boulding, Ken: (1978) Ecodynamics, Sage, Beverly Hills
Unified theory of economics and social systems theory in terms of
..... (1985) World as a Total System, Sage, Beverley Hills
Brillouin, Leon: (1964) Scientific Uncertainty and
Information, Academic Press, New York
Classic work on the relation between thermodynamics, information
theory, and the necessary conditions for observability.
Brooks, DR, and Wiley, EO: (1988) Evolution as Entropy, 2nd
edition, U. of Chicago, Chicago
Recent treatise on entropy as a general measure for biological
study. Definitions of non-thermodynamic, non-informational
entropies at multiple levels of analysis. Severely criticized.
Brown, G. Spencer: (1972) Laws of Form, Julian Press, New York
Philosophy of and notational system for propositional logic.
Basis for a whole school of graphical approaches to classical
Brunner, RD, and Brewer, GD: (1971) Organized Complexity,
Free Press, New York
Buckley, W: ed. (1968) Modern Systems Research for the
Behavioral Scientist, Aldine, Chicago
Bunge, Mario: Method, Model, and Matter, D. Reydel
Campbell, Jeremy: (1982) Grammatical Man, Simon and Schuster,
Popular treatment of many aspects of cognitive science,
information theory, and linguistics.
Cariani, Peter A: (1989) On the Design of Devices w/Emergent
Semantic Functions, SUNY-Binghamton, Binghamton NY, NOTE: PhD
Casti, John: (1979) Connectivity, Complexity and Catastrophe in
Large-Scale Systems, J. Wiley, New York
..... * (1989) Alternate Realities: Mathematical Models of Nature and
Man, Wiley, New York
Modern and very comprehensive text on mathematical modeling.
* Cavallo, Roger E: (1979) Role of Systems Methodology in Social
Science Research, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston
Introduces the GSPS framework and discusses how it can be
utilizes in social science research.
* Checkland, Peter: (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice,
Wiley, New York
Foundations of an area called soft systems methodology,
for social systems management.
Christensen, Ronald: (1980) Entropy Minimax Sourcebook,
Entropy Limited, Lincoln, MA, NOTE: Four volumes
..... (1983) Multivariate Statistical Modeling, Entropy Limited,
Churchman, CW: (1968) Systems Approach, Delta, New York
General introduction to systems thinking in management.
..... (1971) Design of Inquiring Systems, Basic Books, New York
..... (1979) Systems Approach and its Enemies, Basic Books, New York,
Social systems philosophy. But also really about logic and
mathematical description, excluded middles as "enemies"; relation
of epistemics to action. Lucid, entertaining, critical.
Clemson, Barry: (1984) Cybernetics: A New Management Tool,
Abacus Press, Kent
Guide to the theory and practice of management cybernetics.
Based on Beer.
Codd, EF: (1968) Cellular Automata, Academic Press, New York,
Csanyi, V: (1982) General Theory of Evolution, Akademia Kiado,
On universal evolution. Ambitious, non-technical discussion.
Davies, Paul: (1988) Cosmic Blueprint, Simon and Schuster,
Excellent popular survey of complex systems theory.
De Chardin, Teilhard: (1959) The Phenomenon of Man, Harper
and Row, New York
Early systemic evolutionary theology.
Denbigh, Kenneth G: (1975) An Inventive Universe, Hutchinson,
On emergence and thermodynamics.
Denbigh, Kenneth G, and Denbigh, JS: (1985) Entropy in
Relation to Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge U., Cambridge
Good survey of quantum statistical dynamics, objectivity and
subjecticity, basis of the fundamental assumption of
thermodynamics, resolution of Gibbs paradox, relation to
Distefano, JJ, and et. al., : (1967) Feedback and Control
Systems, Schaum, New York
Dretske, Fred: (1982) Knowledge and the Flow of Information,
MIT Press, Cambridge
Treatise on information theory, syntax, and semantic.
Edelman, G: (1987) Neural Darwinism, Basic Books, New York
Theory of selectional processes at the neural level.
Eigen, M, and Schuster, P: (1979) The Hypercycle,
Now classic work on the autocatalysis in chemical cycles: the
cybernetic basis of metabolism.
Eigen, M, and R. Oswatitsch (1996): Steps Toward Life: a perspective on evolution
Erickson, Gary J: ed. (1988) Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian
Methods in Science and Engineering, v. 1,2, Kluwer
Proceedings of the 5th, 6th, and 7th MaxEnt workshops.
Foundations and applications. Spectral analysis, inductive
reasoning, uncertainty and measurement, information theory in
Farlow, SJ: (1984) Self-Organizing Methods in Modeling,
Marcel Dekker, New York
Feistel, Rainer, and Ebeling, Werner: (1988) Evolution of
Complex Systems, Kluwer, New York
Oscillation and chaos in mechanical, electrical, chemical, and
biological systems. Thermodynamics and spatial structures.
Sequences, information, and language. Self-reproducgin systems,
Forrester, JW: (1961) Industrial Dynamics, MIT Press,
..... (1971) World Dynamics, Wright and Allen, Cambridge
Influential early attempt at modeling the "world problem": the
global economic-ecological web. Like the 's _Limits
..... * ed. (1975) Collected Papers of Jay W. Forrester,
Papers by the outher of the "DYNAMO" differential systems tool,
used for global ecological modeling.
Garey, MR, and Johnson, DS: (1979) Computers and
Intractability: Guide to NP-Completeness, WH Freeman, San
One of the best monographs on computational complexity,
NP-completeness and hardness, etc.
Gatlin, L: (1972) Information Theory and the Living System,
Columbia U., New York
Classic work on the use of information theory in the analysis of
genetic structure, evolution, and general biology.
* Gleick, James: (1987) Chaos: Making of a New Science, Viking,
Solid popular introduction to chaotic dynamics and fractal
Glushkov, VM: (1966) Introduction to Cybernetics, Academic
Press, New York
Excellent book on cybernetics, translated from Russian.
Greeniewski, H: Cybernetics Without Mathematics, Pergamon,
Gukhman, AA: (1965) Introduction to the Theory of Similarity,
Acadenmic Press, New York
One of the excellent books on the theory of similarity.
* Haken, Herman: (1978) Synergetics, Springer-Verlag,
Original work by this unique developer of a "competitor" to
systems science as the study of natural complex systems.
..... (1988) Information and Self-Organization, Springer-Verlag, New
On synergetics as the science of complex systems. Integrates
information theory, bifurcation theory, maximum entropy theory,
Hall, AD: (1989) Metasystems Methodology, Pergamon, Oxford
Halme, A, and et. al., : eds. (1979) Topics in Systems
Theory, Acta Polytechnica, Scandanavia
Hammer, PC: ed. (1969) Advances in Mathematical Systems
Theory, Penn St. U, U. Park, PA
Hanken, AFG, and Reuver, HA: (1981) Social Systems and
Learning Systems, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston
Happ, HH: ed. (1973) Gabriel Kron and Systems Theory, Union
College Press, Schenectady NY
Hartnett, WE: ed. (1977) Systems: Approaches, Theories,
Applications, Reidel, Boston
Herman, GT, and Rozenberg, G: (1975) Developmental Systems and
Languages, North-Holland, New York
* Holland, John: (1976) Adaptation in Natural and Artificial
Systems, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor
On the genetic algorithms method of modeling adaptive systems.
..... Hidden Order : How Adaptation Builds Complexity
..... Induction : Processes of Inference, Learning and Discovery;
Kanerva, Penti: (1988) Sparse Distributed Memory, MIT Press,
On the geometry of high dimensional, low cardinality spaces;
application to associative memory.
Klir, George: (1969) An Approach to General Systems Theory,
van Nostrand, New York
An early book that describes the nucleus of what is known now as
the General Systems Problem Solver.
..... ed. (1972) Trends in General Systems Theory, Wiley, New York
Contains overviews of systems conceptual frameworks of Mesarovic,
Wymore, and Klir; and other papers on some fundamental issues of
..... ed. (1981) Special Issue on Reconstructibility Analysis, in:
Int. J. Gen. Sys., v. 7:1, pp. 1-107
Broekstra, Cavallo, Conant, Klir, Krippendorff
..... (1985) Architecture of Systems Problem Solving, Plenum, New
Vast, general theory of epistemological systems, outline of a
platform for general systems modeling and inductive inference.
..... **(1992) Facets of Systems Science, Plenum, New
Reprints of most classical papers in systems science with an up-to-date introduction. Recommended for everyone as a general introduction to the domain
Klir, George, and Folger, Tina: (1987) Fuzzy Sets,
Uncertainty, and Information, Prentice Hall
Primary text on fuzzy systems theory and extended information
Koestler, Arthur, and Smythes, J.R.: eds. (1968) Beyond
Reductionism, Hutchinson, London
Classical anthology on holism and reductionism.
Krinsky, VI: ed. (1984) Self-Organization: Autowaves and
Structures Far From Equilibrium, Springer-Verlag, New York
Langton, Chris: ed. (1988) Artificial Life, Addison-Wesley
Proceedings from first artificial life conference. Pattee, Goel,
Lerner, D: (1963) Parts and Wholes, Free Press, New York
* Lilienfeld, Robert: (1978) Rise of Systems Theory: An
Ideological Analysis, Wiley-Intersciences, New York
A good critical view of some undesirable developments in the
Lumsden, Charles, and Wilson, Edward: (1981) Genes, Mind, and
Culture: the Coevolutionary Process, Harvard, Cambridge
Non-systemic attempt at unified biological evolutionary theory.
Mind as necessary explanatory component from genes to culture.
Sociobiology, biological constraint and cause of behavior.
Epigenetic rules, epigenesis as coevolution. Mathematical,
culturgens. Euculture as human culture, vs. protoculture.
Bibliography, no thermodynamics.
Mandelbrot, BB: (1982) Fractal Geometry of Nature, WH
Freeman, San Francisco
Classical work on the implications of fractal geometry for
modeling physical systems.
Margalef, D Ramon: (1968) Perspectives in Sociological
Theory, U. Chicago, Chicago
Maturana, HR, and Varela, F: (1987) Tree of Knowledge,
On cybernetics and constructivist psychology.
McCulloch, Warren: (1965) Embodiments of Mind, MIT Press,
Meadows, Donella H, and Meadows, Dennis L: (1972) Limits to
Growth, Signet, New York, and its follow-up Beyond the Limits
Famous report of the Club of Rome. First systems dynamics model
of world ecology.
Mesarovic, MD: (1964) Views of General Systems Theory, Wiley,
Mesarovic, MD, and Macko, D: (1970) Theory of Hierarchical
Multi-Level Systems, Academic Press, New York
Mesarovic, MD, and Takahara, Y: (1975) General Systems Theory:
Mathematical Foundations, Academic Press, New York
Mesarovic, MD, and Takahara, : (1988) Abstract Systems
Theory, Springer-Verlag, Berlin
Grand formalism for Systems Science. Fundamental behaviorism.
Teleogical (functional) and material, causal (structural)
descriptions as equivalent in system-description language.
Defense of formalism as a kind of language. Systems as proper
relations. Cybernetic systems as goal-seeking. Complexity as
meta-systems (nesting). Introductions to category theory,
topology, etc. Fuzzy systems as ** open** systems.
* Miller, James G: (1978) Living Systems, McGraw Hill, New
General synthetic theory of biological systems. On functional
self-similarity across levels of analysis.
Miser, HJ, and Quade, ES: eds. (1985) Handbook of Systems
Analysis, North-Holland, New York
Monod, Jacques: (1971) Chance and Necessity, Vantage, New
Famous essay on philosophical problems concerning theories of
Morowitz, Harold J: (1968) Energy Flow in Biology, Academic
Press, New York
On the thermodynamics and informational (entropic) dynamics of
Morrison, P: (1982) Powers of Ten, in: Scientific American
Books, WH Freeman, New York
"Guided tour" through the spatial scales of natural structure.
Negoita, CV, and Ralescu, DA: (1975) Applications of Fuzzy
Sets to Systems Analysis, Birkhauser, Stuttgart
* Negotia, CV: (1981) Fuzzy Systems, Abacus Press,
Simple, coherent introduction to fuzzy systems theory.
Nicolis, G, and Prigogine, Ilya: (1977) Self-Organization in
Non-Equilibrium Systems, Wiley, New York
Technical work on self-organization in flow systems,
thermodynamic systems, and other describably in terms of partial
* Odum, HT: (1983) Systems Ecology, Wiley, New York
Grand theory of global ecology. Thermodynamic basis of economy.
Pattee, Howard: ed. (1973) Hierarchy Theory, George
Braziller, New York
Phillips, DC: (1976) Holistic Thought in Social Sciences
On synthesis on holism and reductionism.
Pines, David: ed. (1988) Emerging Syntheses in Science,
Addison-Wesley, New York
Includes key articles by Charles Bennett and interesting looks at
spin-glasses and solitons.
Powers, WT: (1973) Behavior, the Control of Perception,
Radical constructivist cybernetic psychological theory.
* Prigogine, Ilya: (1980) From Being to Becoming, WH Freeman,
On the whole Prigogine program for explanation of evolution in
..... (1984) Order Out of Chaos, Bantam, New York
Famous, almost-popular treatment of the relation between
far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic, general evolutionary theory,
and natural philosophy.
Rapoport, Anatol: (1984) General Systems Theory: Essential
Concepts and Applications, Abacus, Cambridge
Rescher, Nicholas: Scientific Explanation
Uses stochastic automata in a philosophy of theory.
..... (1979) Cognitive Systematization, Rowman and Littlefie, Totowa,
Treatment of coherentist epistemolgoy and formal development of
the necessary limits to knowledge.
Rosen, Robert: (1970) Dynamical Systems Theory in Biology,
Wiley-Interscience, New York
..... (1985) Anticipatory Systems, Pergamon, Oxford
The only book on anticipatory systems at present.
Rosenkrantz, Roger D: ed. (1989) ET Jaynes Papers on Prob.,
Statistics and Statistical Physics, Kluwer
Collection of Jayne's best papers.
Sage, AP: (1977) Methodology for Large Scale Systems,
McGraw-Hill, New York
Sandquist, GM: (1985) Introduction to Systems Science,
Prentice Hall, Eng. Cliffs NJ
* Sayre, Kenneth: (1976) Cybernetics and the Philosophy of
Mind, Humanities Press, Atl. High., NJ
Grand cybernetic evolutionary theory of mind.
Schrodinger, : (1967) What is Life?, Cambridge U., Cambridge,
Classic essay series on foundations of biological theory.
Shafer, Glen: (1976) A Mathematical Theory of Evidence,
Princeton U., Princeton
On the foundations of extended information theory, in particular
extended probabilities and Dempster-Shafer evidential
Shannon, CE: ed. (1956) Automata Studies, Princeton U. Press,
First and historically very important book on automata; includes
von Neumann on probabilistic automata.
Shannon, CE, and Weaver, W: (1964) Mathematical Theory of
Communication, U. Illinois, Urbana
Classic work on the foundations of classical information theory.
Simon, Herbert: (1969) Sciences of the Artificial, MIT,
..... (1977) Models of Discovery, Reidel, Boston
Skilling, John: ed. (1989) Maximum-Entropy and Bayesian
Proceedings of the 8th MaxEnt workshop. Statistical
thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. Measurement,
crystalography, spectroscopy, time series, power spectra,
astronomy, neural nets. Fundamentals, statistics.
Skoglund, V: (1967) Similitude: Theory and Applications, Int.
Textbook Co., Scranton PA
Smuts, JC: (1926) Holism and Evolution, McMillan, London
Early work on holism.
Steinbruner, JD: (1974) Cybernetic Theory of Decision,
Princeton U, Princeton
Susiluoto, I: (1982) Origins and Development of Systems
Thinking in USSR, in: Annales Acad. Scie.,Diss.HumanLitt., v.
30, Finnish Acad. Sci., Helsinki
* Szucz, E: (1980) Similitude and Modeling, Elsevier, New York,
Probably the most modern book on the theory of similarity.
Theil, H: (1967) Economics and Information Theory, Rand
Classic work on the use of information theory in economic
Thom, Rene: (1975) Structural Stability and Morphogenesis,
Addison-Wesley, Reading MA
..... (1983) Mathematical Models of Morphogenesis, Ellis Hortwood
Ltd., New York
Topological approach to systems philosophy, catastrophe theory,
Thompson, D'Arcy: (1959) On Growth and Form, Cambridge U.,
Classic work in early cybernetic biological theory.
Trappl, Robert: ed. (1983) Cybernetics: Theory and
Applications, Hemisphere, Washington
Anthology of foundations of systems and cybernetics; review of
applications; complete bibliography. Beer, Atlan, Pichler, Klir,
Pask, Nowakowska, Arbib, Laszlo.
Trappl, Robert, and Horn, W, et. al.: eds. (1984) Basic and
Applied General Systems Research: Bibliography, IFSR,
Laxenburg,Aust., NOTE: From 1977-1984
Turchin, Valentin: (1977) Phenomenon of Science, Columbia U.,
Cybernetic theory of universal evolution. Metascience as a
..... (1981) Inertia of Fear and Scientific Worldview, Columbia U.
Press, New York
Interpretation of totalitarianism from the persepctive of
cybernetic social theory.
** von Bertalanffy, Ludwig: (1968) General Systems Theory, George
Braziller, New York
Van Laarhove, PJ, and Aarts, EHL: (1987) Simulated Annealing:
Theory and Applications, Kluwer
On phase transitions.
Varela, FG: (1979) Principles of Biological Autonomy, North
Holland, New York
von Foerster, Heinz: (1979) Cybernetics of Cybernetics, ed.
K. Krippendorf, GordonandBreach, New York
ed. (1981) Observing Systems, Intersystems, Seaside CA
Many classic early cybernetics essays. On
self-organization,memory without record (non-localized
representation), computation of neural nets, necessities of
biological function. Later essays on self-referential
psychology much weaker.
von Foerster, Heinz, and Zopf, G.: eds. (1962) Principles of
Self-Organization, Pergamon, New York
von Neumann, John: (1958) Computer and the Brain, Yale U.,
Classical essay on the theoretical foundations of cognitive
..... (1966) Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, U. Illinois, Urbana
Waddington, CH: (1977) Tools for Thought, Cape, London
Warfield, JN: (1976) Societal Systems, Wiley-Interscience,
Wartofsky, MW: (1979) Models, Reidel, Boston
Weber, Bruce: ed. (1988) Entropy, Information, and Evolution,
MIT Press, Cambridge
Primary reference. Wicken, Wiley, Brooks. Cities as dissipative
* Weinberg, Gerard M.: (1975) An Introduction to General Systems
Thinking, Wiley, New York
A readable and insightful book.
..... (1988) Rethinking Systems Analysis and Decision, Dorset House,
Weir, M: (1984) Goal-Directed Behavior, Gordon and Breach
Wicken, Jeffrey: (1987) Evolution, Information and
Thermodynamics, Oxford U., New York
** Wiener, Norbert: (1948) Cybernetics. or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine, MIT Press, Cambridge
On the Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society
Wilden, Anthony: (1972) System and Structure, Tavistock, New
Series of fascinating, polemical essays on a vast variety of
subjects critical to systems and cybernetics and their relations
to depth psychology, politics, and world culture.
Wilson, B: (1984) Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, and
Applications, Wiley, Chichester UK
Windeknecht, TG: (1971) General Dynamical Processes, Academic
Press, New York
Wolfram, Steven: ed. (1986) Theory and Applications of
Cellular Automata, Scientific Press
Wymore, AW: (1969) Mathematical Theory of Systems
Engineering, Wiley, New York
..... (1976) Systems Engineering Methodology for Interdisc. Theory,
Wiley, New York
Wymore, Wayne: Systems Theory
Yates, Eugene: ed. (1987) Self-Organizing Systems: the Emergence
of Order, Plenum, New York
Critical collection on self-organizing systems. Includes
Iberall, Morowitz, Arbib, Pattee, Haken, Caianiello, Abraham and
Zadeh, Lofti A: (1954) System Theory, in: Columbia Eng.
Quart., v. 8, pp. 16-19
Zadeh, Lofti A, and Desoer, CA: (1963) Linear Systems Theory,
Mcraw-Hill, New York
Zeeman, EC: (1977) Catastrophe Theory, Addison Wesley,
Development of hysteresis and catastrophe theory as a modeling
tool for systems science.
Zeigler, BP: (1976) Theory of Modeling and Simulation, Wiley,
Zeigler, BP, and Elzas, MS et. al.: eds. (1979) Methodology in
Systems Modeling and Simulation, North-Holland, New York
Zeleny, Milan: ed. (1981) Autopoiesis: A Theory of Living
Organization, North-Holland, New York
Critical anthology on this theory of self-organization, including
Maturana and Varela.