Principia Cybernetica Web

Basic Papers on Cybernetics and Systems Science

The following is a list of references used for the course SS-501, INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS SCIENCE, at the Systems Science Department of SUNY Binghamton in 1990.

All of the classic, "required" papers have been reprinted in the book: Klir G.J. (1992) Facets of Systems Science, (Plenum, New York). You can order photocopies of many papers via the CARL UnCover service, which provides a search through a database containing millions of papers in thousands of academic journals covering all disciplines. Other, specific bibliographic references of books and a selected number of papers can be found in the library database of the Department of Medical Cybernetics and AI at the University of Vienna. A number of more recent books and papers can be found in our bibliography on complex, evolving systems, and in the bibliography of the Principia Cybernetica Project.

Key:    *       Required
        R       Recommended

  Abraham, Ralph: (1987) "Dynamics and Self-Organization", in:
     /Self-Organizing Systems/, ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 599-616, Plenum

          Review of the scope and extent of modern dynamics theory,
          especially as related to problems in self-organization.  Useful
          after an elementary understanding of dynamical systems.

  Abraham, Ralph, and Shaw, Christophe: (1987) "Dynamics: a
     Visual Introduction", in: /Self-Organizing Systems: Emergence/,
     ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 543-598, Plenum

  Ackoff, Russel: (1979) "Future of Operational Research is
     Past", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 241-252

R Arbib, Michael A: (1966) "Automata Theory and Control Theory: A
     Rapproachement", /Automatica/, v. 3, pp. 161-189

          A unification of automata theory and control theory in a broader
          theory of dynamic systems.

  Arbib, Michael A, and Rhodes, JL et. al.: (1968) "Complexity and
     Graph Complexity of Finite State Machines and Finite Semi-Groups",
     in: /Algorithmic Theory of Machines, Languages and Semi-Groups/,
     ed. MA Arbib, pp. 127-145, Academic Press, New York

          A rigorous formulation of descriptive complexity of systems in
          terms of finite state machines.

* Ashby, Ross: (1958) "General Systems Theory as a New
     Discipline", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3:1

     * (1958) "Requisite Variety and Implications for Control of Complex
     Systems", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 83-99

     * (1964) "Introductory Remarks at Panel Discussion", in: /Views
     in General Systems Theory/, ed. M. Mesarovic, pp. 165-169, Wiley,
     New York

     (1965) "Measuring the Internal Informational Exchange in a
     System", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 5-22

          A readable paper that explains how the Shannon entropy can be
          used in analyzing systems.

     (1968) "Some Consequences of Bremermann's Limit for Information
     Processing Systems", in: /Cybernetic Problems in Bionics/, ed.
     H Oestreicher et. al, pp. 69-76, Gordon and Breach, New York

     (1970) "Information Flows Within Coordinated Systems", /Progress
     in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J. Rose, pp. 57-64, Gordon and Breach,

     (1972) "Systems and Their Informational Measures", in: /Trends in
     General Systems Theory/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 78-97, Wiley, New York,

     * (1973) "Some Peculiarities of Complex Systems", /Cybernetic
     Medicine/, v. 9:2, pp. 1-6

  Atlan, Henri: (1981) "Hierarchical Self-Organization in Living
     Systems", in: /Autopoises/, ed. Milan Zeleny, North Holland, New

  Auger, Peter: (1989) "Microcanonical Ensembles with
     Non-equiprobable States", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 20:3, pp.

  Aulin, AY: (1975) "Cybernetics as Foundational Science of
     Action", /Cybernetic/, v. 3

     * (1979) "Law of Requisite Hierarchy", /Kybernetes/, v. 8, pp.

  Bahm, AJ: (1981) "Five Types of Systems Philosophies", /Int. J.
     Gen. Sys./, v. 6

     (1983) "Five Systems Concepts of Society", /Behavoral Science/,
     v. 28

     (1984) "Holons: Three Conceptions", /Systems Research/, v. 1:2,
     pp. 145-150

          Comparison of three system philosophies.

     (1986) "Nature of Existing Systems", /Systems Research/, v. 3:3,
     Pergamon, Oxford

          Philosophical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions
          for systemic processes.

     (1988) "Comparing Civilizations as Systems", /Systems Research/,
     v. 5:1

          Macroscopic structural, semantic analysis of cultural systems.

  Bailey, Kenneth D: (1984) "Equilibrium, Entropy and
     Homeostasis", /Systems Research/, v. 1:1, pp. 25-43

          Excellent survey of these concepts in multiple disciplines.

  Balakrishnan, AV: "On the State Space Theory of Linear
     Systems", /J. Mathematical Analysis and Appl./, v. 14:3, ed.
     1966, pp. 371-391

* Barto, AG: (1978) "Discrete and Continuous Model", /Int. J.
     Gen. Sys./, v. 4:3, pp. 163-177

  Bennett, Charles H: (1986) "On the Nature and Origin of Complexity
     in Discrete, Homogeneous, Locally-Interacting Systems",
     /Foundations of Physics/, v. 16, pp. 585-592

          On Bennett's measure of algorithmic depth.

  Black, M: (1937) "Vagueness: An Exercise in Logical Analysis",
     /Philosophy of Science/, v. 4, pp. 427-455

          Probably the best discussion of the meaning of vagueness and its
          importance in science and philosophy.

* Boulding, Ken: (1956) "General Systems Theory - The Skeleton of
     Science", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 11-17

     (1968) "Specialist with a Universal Mind", /Management Science/,
     v. 14:12, pp. B647-653

     * (1974) "Economics and General Systems", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v.
     1:1, pp. 67-73

  Bovet, DP: (1988) "An Introduction to Theory of Computational
     Complexity", in: /Measures of Complexity/, ed. L Peliti, A
     Vulpiani, pp. 102-111, Springer-Verlag, New York

  Braitenberg, Valentino: "Vehicles: Expirement in Synthetic
     Psychology", /IEEE Trans. of Syst., Man, and Cyb./

          On the complex, seemingly lifelike behavior of simply designed
          cybernetic robots.

* Bremermann, HJ: (1962) "Optimization Through Evolution and
     Recombination", in: /Self-Organizing Systems/, ed. MC Yovits et.
     al., pp. 93-106, Spartan, Washington DC

     (1967) "Quantifiable Aspects of Goal-Seeking Self-Org. Systems",
     in: /Progress in Theoretical Biology/, v. M Snell, pp. 59-77,
     Academic Press, New York

  Brillouin, Leon: (1953) "Negentropy Principle of Information",
     /J. of Applied Physics/, v. 24:9, pp. 1152-1163

          First Brillouin essay, on the relation between thermodynamic and
          informational entropies.

* Bunge, Mario: (1978) "General Sys. Theory Challenge to
     Classical Philosophy of Science", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1

     (1981) "Systems all the Way", /Nature and Systems/, v. 3:1, pp.

  Carnap, Rudolph, and Bar-Hillel, Y: (1952) "Semantic
     Information", /British J. for Philosopy of Science/, v. 4, pp.

  Cavallo, RE, and Pichler, F: (1979) "General Systems
     Methodology: Design for Intuition Ampl.", in: /Improving the
     Human Condition/, Springer-Verlag, New York

  Caws, P: (1974) "Coherence, System, and Structure", /Idealistic
     Studies/, v. 4, pp. 2-17

  Chaitin, Gregory J: (1975) "Randomness and Mathematical Proof",
     /Scientific American/, v. 232:5

     (1977) "Algorithmic Information Theory", /IBM J. Res. Develop./,
     v. 21:4, pp. 350-359

          Introduction of Chaitin's version of Kolmogorov complexity.

     (1982) "Godel's Theorem and Information", /Int. J. Theoretical
     Physics/, v. 22

* Checkland, Peter: (1976) "Science and Systems Paradigm", /Int.
     J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 127-134

  Chedzey, Clifford S, and Holmes, Donald S: (1976) "System
     Entropies of Markov Chains", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. XXI,
     pp. 73-85

     (1977) "System Entropy and the Monotonic Approach to Equilibrium",
     /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 139-142

     (1977) "System Entropy of a Discrete Time Probability Function",
     /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 143-146

     (1977) "First Discussion of Markov Chain System Entropy Applied
     to Physics", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 147-167

  Cherniak, Christophr: (1988) "Undebuggability and Cognitive
     Science", /Communications of the ACM/, v. 31:4

          Like Bremmerman's limit, some simple mathematics on the limits of
          computational methods.

  Christensen, Ronald: (1985) "Entropy Minimax Multvariate
     Statistical Modeling: I", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 11

R Conant, Roger C: (1969) "Information Transfer Required in
     Regulatory Processes", /IEEE Trans. on Sys. Sci. and Cyb./, v. 5:4,
     pp. 334-338

          A discussion of the use of the Shannon entropy in the study of

     R (1974) "Information Flows in Hierarchical Systems", /Int. J.
     Gen. Sys./, v. 1, pp. 9-18

          Using classical (Shannon) information theory, it is shown that
          hierarchical structures are highly efficient in information

     * (1976) "Laws of Information Which Govern Systems", /IEEE Trans.
     Sys., Man & Cyb./, v. 6:4, pp. 240-255

* Conant, Roger C, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Every Good Regulator
     of Sys. Must Be Model of that Sys.", /Int. J. Systems Science/,
     v. 1:2, pp. 89-97

  Cornacchio, Joseph V: (1977) "Systems Complexity: A
     Bibliography", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3, pp. 267-271

  De Raadt, JDR: (1987) "Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety: An
     Empirical Study", /Cybernetics and Systems/, v. 18:6, pp.

R Eigen, M, and Schuster, P: (1977) "Hypercycle: A Principle of
     Natural Self-Org.", /Naturwissenschaften/, v. 64,65

          Classical work on molecular feedback mechanisms.

  Engell, S: (1984) "Variety, Information, and Feedback",
     /Kybernetes/, v. 13:2, pp. 73-77

  Erlandson, RF: (1980) "Participant-Oberver in Systems
     Methodologies", /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man, and Cyb./, v. SMC-10:1,
     pp. 16-19

  Ferdinand, AE: (1974) "Theory of Systems Complexity", /Int. J.
     Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 19-33

          A paper that connects defect probability with systems complexity
          through the maximum entropy principle.  Also investigates the
          relationship between modularity and complexity.

  Ford, Joseph: (1986) "Chaos: Solving the Unsolvable, Predicting
     the Unpredictable", in: /Chaotic Dynamics and Fractals/,
     Academic Press

          Fascinating account of the relation between chaotic dynamics, the
          limits of observability, constructive mathematics, exsitence and
          uniqueness, and the "ideology" of the scientific community.

  Gaines, Brian R: "An Overview of Knowledge Acquisition and Transfer",
      /IEEE Proc. on Man and Machine/, v. 26:4

          GSPS type methods as the general form of all science.  Relation
          of Klir's GSPS methodology to other inductive methodologies.

     R (1972) "Axioms for Adaptive Behavior", /Int. J. of Man-Machine
     Studies/, v. 4, pp. 169-199

          Perhaps the most comprehenseive foundational work on adaptive

     * (1976) "On the Complexity of Causal Models", /IEEE Trans. on
     Sys., Man, & Cyb./, v. 6, pp. 56-59

     R (1977) "System Identification, Approximation and Complexity",
     /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:145, pp. 145-174

          A thorough discussion on the relationship among complexity,
          credibiilty, and uncertainty associated with systems models.

     * (1978) "Progress in General Systems Research", in: /Applied
     General Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 3-28, Plenum, New

     * (1979) "General Systems Research: Quo Vadis?", /General Systems
     Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 1-9

     * (1983) "Precise Past - Fuzzy Future", /Int. J. Man-Machine
     Studies/, v. 19, pp. 117-134

     * (1984) "Methodology in the Large: Modeling All There Is",
     /Systems Research/, v. 1:2, pp. 91-103

R Gallopin, GC: "Abstract Concept of Environment", /Int. J. Gen.
     Sys./, v. 7:2, pp. 139-149

          A rare discussion of the concept of environment by a well known

  Gardner, MR: (1968) "Critical Degenerotes in Large Linear
     Systems", /BCL Report/, v. 5:8, EE Dept., U. Ill, Urbana

          A report on an experimental investigation whose purpose is to
          determine the relationship between stability and connectance of
          linear systems.

* Gardner, MR, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Connectance of Large
     Dynamic (Cybernetic) Systems", /Nature/, v. 228:5273, pp. 784

  Gelfland, AE, and Walker, CC: (1977) "Distribution of Cycle
     Lengths in Class of Abstract Sys.", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1,
     pp. 39-45

* Goguen, JA, and Varela, FJ: (1979) "Systems and Distinctions:
     Duality and Complementarity", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:1, pp.

  Gorelick, George: (1983) "Bogdanov's Tektology: Naure,
     Development and Influences", /Studies in Soviet Thought/, v. 26,
     pp. 37-57

  Greenspan, D: (1980) "Discrete Modeling in Microcosm and
     Macrocosm", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 6:1, pp. 25-45

* Hall, AS, and Fagan, RE: (1956) "Definition of System",
     /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 18-28

  Harel, David: (1988) "On Visual Formalisms", /Communications of
     the ACM/, v. 31:5

          Reasonable, critical extensions of "Venn Diagrams", general
          consideration of the representation of multidimensional systems.

  Henkind, Steven J, and Harrison, Malcolm C: (1988) "Analysis of
     Four Uncertainty Calculi", /IEEE Trans. Man Sys. Cyb./, v. 18:5,
     pp. 700-714

          On Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, Fuzzy Set, and MYCIN methods of
          uncertainty management.

  Herbenick, RM: (1970) "Peirce on Systems Theory", /Transaction
     of the S. Peirce Soc./, v. 6:2, pp. 84-98

R Huber, GP: (1984) "Nature and Design of Post-Industrial
     Organizations", /Management Science/, v. 30:8, pp. 928-951

          Excellent paper discussing the changing nature of organizations
          in the information society.

* Islam, S: (1974) "Toward Integrating Two Systems Theories By
     Mesarovic and Wymore", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 35-40

  Jaynes, ET: (1957) "Information Theory and Statistical
     Mechanics", /Physical Review/, v. 106,108, pp. 620-630

          A classic paper.  Information theory as a sufficient and elegant
          basis for thermodynamics.  But does it follow that thermodynamics
          is necessarily dependent on information theory, or that entropy
          is "just" incomplete knowledge?  Compares principle of maximum
          entropy with assumptions of ergodicity, metric transitivity,
          and/or uniform a priori distributions.  Prediction as microscopic
          to macroscopic explanation; interpretation as macro to micro.

  Johnson, Horton A.: (1970) "Information Theory in Biology After
     18 Years", /Science/, v. 6/26/70

          Scathing critique of the role of "classical" information theory
          in biological science.  Most of these criticisms are still
          unanswered, if being addressed in a roundabout way (e.g.
          algorithmic complexity theory).

  Joslyn, Cliff: (1988) "Review: Works of Valentin Turchin",
     /Systems Research/, v. 5:1

          Short introduction to Turchin's cybernetic theories of universal

* Kampis, G: (1989) "Two Approaches for Defining 'Systems'",
     /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 15, pp. 75-80

  Kaufmann, Stuart A: (1969) "Metabolic StabilityandEpigenesis in
     Randomly Constructed Genetic Nets", /Journal of Theoretical Biology/,
     v. 22, pp. 437-467

     (1984) "Emergent Properties in Random Complex Automata",
     /Physica/, v. 10D, pp. 145

  Kellerman, E: (1968) "Framework for Logical Cont.", /IEEE
     Transactions on Computers/, v. E-17:9, pp. 881-884

  Klapp, OE: (1975) "Opening and Closing in Open Systems",
     /Behav. Sci./, v. 20, pp. 251-257

          Philosophy on the dynamics of social processes; entropic

R Klir, George: (1970) "On the Relation Between Cybernetics and
     Gen. Sys. Theory", in: /Progress in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J
     Rose, pp. 155-165, Gordon and Breach, London

          A formal discussion on the relation between the fields of
          "cybernetics" and "systems science", concluding that the former
          is a subfield of the latter.

     (1972) "Study of Organizations of Self-Organizing Systems", in:
     /Proc. 6th Int. Congress on Cyb./, pp. 162-186, Wammer, Belgium

     (1976) "Ident. of Generative Structures in Empirical Data", /Int.
     J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 89-104

     (1978) "General Systems Research Movement", in: /Sys. Models for
     Decision Modeling/, ed. N Sharif et. al., pp. 25-70, Asian Inst.
     Tech., Bangkok

     * (1985) "Complexity: Some General Observations", /Systems
     Research/, v. 2:2, pp. 131-140

     * (1985) "Emergence of 2-D Science in the Information Society",
     /Systems Resarch/, v. 2:1, pp. 33-41

     * (1988) "Systems Profile: the Emergence of Systems Science",
     /Systems Research/, v. 5:2, pp. 145-156

  Klir, George, and Way, Eileen: (1985) "Reconstructability
     Analysis: Aims, Results, Problems", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2,
     pp. 141-163

          Introduction to the methods of reconstruction as well as their
          relevance to general philosophical problems.

  Kolmogorov, AN: (1965) "Three Approaches to the Quantitative Definition
     of Information", /Problems of Information Transmission/, v. 1:1,
     pp. 1-7

          First introduction of algorithmic meatrics of complexity and

  Krippendorf, Klaus: (1984) "Epistemological Foundation for
     Communication", /J. of Communication/, v. 84:Su

          On the necessary cybernetics of communication.

  Krohn, KB, and Rhodes, JL: (1963) "Algebraic Theory of
     Machines", in: /Mathematical Theory of Automata/, ed. J. Fox, pp.
     341-384, Ploytechnic Press, Brooklyn NY

     (1968) "Complexity of Finite Semigroups", /Annals of
     Mathematics/, v. 88, pp. 128-160

  Layzer, David: (1988) "Growth of Order in the Universe", in:
     /Entropy, Information, and Evolution/, ed. Bruce Weber et. al.,
     pp. 23-40, MIT Press, Cambridge

          On the thermodynamics of cosmological evolution, and the
          necessity of "self-organization" in an expanding universe.

* Lendaris, GG: (1964) "On the Definition of Self-Organizing
     Systems", /IEEE Proceedings/, v. 52, pp. 324-325

R Lettvin, JY, and Maturana, HR: (1959) "What the Frog's Eye Tell
     the Frog's Brain", /Proceedings of the IRE/, v. 47, pp.

          Classic early paper in cybernetics, cited as the basis of
          "constructive" psychological theory.

  Levin, Steve: (1986) "Icosahedron as 3D Finite Element in
     Biomechanical Supp.", in: /Proc. 30th SGSR/, v. G, pp. 14-23

     R (1989) "Space Truss as Model for Cervical Spine Mechanics",
     NOTE: Manuscript

          Startling theory of the necessary foundations of biomechanics in
          2-d triangular (heaogonal) plane packing and 3-d dodecahedral
          space packing.

  Lloyd, Seth, and Pagels, Heinz: (1988) "Complexity as
     Thermodynamic Depth", /Annals of Physics/, v. 188, pp. 1

          Perhaps a classic, on their new measure as the difference betwen
          fine and coarse entropy.  Comparison with other measures of
          depth, complexity, and information.

* Lofgren, Lars: (1977) "Complexity of Descriptions of Sys: A
     Foundational Study", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 197-214

  Madden, RF, and Ashby, Ross: (1972) "On Identification of
     Many-Dimensional Relations", /Int. J. of Systems Science/, v. 3,
     pp. 343-356

          An early paper contributing to the area that is known now as
          reconstructibility analysis.

  Makridakis, S, and Faucheux, C: (1973) "Stability Properties of
     General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 18, pp. 3-12

  Makridakis, S, and Weinstraub, ER: (1971) "On the Synthesis of
     General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 16, pp. 43-54

  Margalef, D Ramon: (1958) "Information Theory in Ecology",
     /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3, pp. 36-71

* Marschal, JH: (1975) "Concept of a System", /Philosophy of
     Science/, v. 42:4, pp. 448-467

* May, RM: (1972) "Will a Large Complex System be Stable?",
     /Nature/, v. 238, pp. 413-414

  McCulloch, Warren, and Pitts, WH: "Logical Calculus of Ideas
     Immanent in Nervous Activity", /Bull. Math. Biophysics/, v. 5

          Classic early work on the neural nets as a logical modeling

  McGill, WJ: (1954) "Multivariate Information Transmission",
     /Psychometrica/, v. 19, pp. 97-116

  Mesarovic, MD: (1968) "Auxiliary Functions and Constructive
     Specification of Gen. Sys.", /Mathematical Systems Theory/,
     v. 2:3

R Miller, James G: (1986) "Can Systems Theory Generate Testable
     Hypotheses?", /Systems Research/, v. 3:2, pp. 73-84

          On systems theoretic research programs attempting to unify
          scientific theory through hypothesized isomorphies among levels
          of analysis.

  Negoita, CV: (1989) "Review: Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
     Information", /Kybernetes/, v. 18:1, pp. 73-74

          Good analysis of the significance of fuzzy set theory.

  Pattee, Howard: "Evolution of Self-Simplifying Systems", in:
     /Relevance of GST/, ed. Ervin Laszlo, George Braziller, New York,

     "Instabilities and Information in Biological Self-Organization",
     in: /Self Organizing Systems/, ed. F. Eugene Yates, Plenum, New York

     (1973) "Physical Problems of Origin of NaturalControl", in:
     /Biogenesis, Evolution, Homeostasis/, ed. A. Locker,
     Springer-Verlag, New York

     (1978) "Complementarity Principle in Biological and Social Structures",
     /J. of Social and Biological Structures/, v. 1

     (1985) "Universal Principle of Measurement and Language Function in
     Evolving Systems", in: /Complexity, Language, and Life/, ed. John
     Casti, pp. 268-281, Springer-Verlag, Berlin

     (1988) "Simulations, Realizations, and Theories of Life", in:
     /Artificial Life/, ed. C Langton, pp. 63-77, Addison-Wesley,
     Redwood City CA

  Patten, BC: (1978) "Systems Approach to the Concept of
     Environment", /Ohio J. of Science/, v. 78:4, pp. 206-222

  Pearl, J: (1978) "On Connection Between Complexity and Credibility of
     Inferred Models", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:4, pp. 255-264

          Theoretical study that shows that credibility of determinstic
          models inferred from data tends to increase with data size and
          decrease with the complexity of the model.

  Pedrycz, W: (1981) "On Approach to the Analysis of Fuzzy
     Systmes", /Int. J. of Control/, v. 34, pp. 403-421

  Peterson, JL: (1977) "Petri Nets", /ACM Computing Surveys/, v.
     9:3, pp. 223-252

R Pippenger, N: (1978) "Complexity Theory", /Scientific
     American/, v. 238:6, pp. 114-124

          Excellent discussion of one facet of complexity.

* Porter, B: (1976) "Requisite Variety in the Systems and Control
     Sciences", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 2:4, pp. 225-229

  Prigogine, Ilya, and Nicolis, Gregoire: (1972) "Thermodynamics
     of Evolution", /Physics Today/, v. 25, pp. 23-28

          Briefer introduction to far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics,
          hypercycles, and evolutionary theory.  Criticzed as confused.

  Rapoport, Anatol: (1962) "Mathemantical Aspects of General
     Systems Theory", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 3-11

  Rivier, N: (1986) "Structure of Random Cellular Networks and
     Their Evolution", /Physica/, v. 23D, pp. 129-137

          Brilliant introduction to the theory of the equilibrium
          distribution of macroscopic entities (cells) in multiple kinds of
          substances: metals, soap suds, and animal and vegetable tissues;
          according to a non-thermodynamic maximum entropy law.  Subsumes
          other laws from these specific disciplines.

     (1988) "Statistical Geometry of Tissues", in: /Thermodynamics and
     Pattern Formation in Biology/, pp. 415-445, Walter de Gruyter,
     New York

* Rosen, Robert: (1977) "Complexity as a Systems Property", /Int.
     J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 227-232

     * (1978) "Biology and Systems Resarch", in: /Applied General
     Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 489-510, Plenum, New York

     * (1979) "Anticipatory Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v.
     24, pp. 11-23

     * (1979) "Old Trends and New Trends in General Systems Resarch",
     /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:3, pp. 173-184

     * (1981) "Challenge of Systems Theory", /General Systems

     * (1985) "Physics of Complexity", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2, pp.

     * (1986) "Some Comments on Systems and Systems Theory", /Int. J.
     Gen. Sys./, v. 13:1, pp. 1-3

  Rosenbluth, Arturo, and Wiener, Norbert: (1943) "Behavior,
     Purpose, and Teleology", /Philosophy of Science/, v. 10, pp.

          Original introduction of teleonomy, teleology, goal-seeking, and
          intentionality in cybernetic terms.

  Rothstein, J: (1979) "Generalized Entropy, Boundary Conditions,
     and Biology", in: /Maximum Entropy Formalism/, ed. RD Levine, pp.
     423-468, Cambridge U., Cambridge

          On boundary conditions in biology, organisms as "well-informed
          heat engines", definition of mutual information, order as an
          entropy measure.

  Sadovsky, V: (1979) "Methodology of Science and Systems
     Approach", /Social Science/, v. 10, Moscow

  Saperstein, Alvin M.: (1984) "Chaos: A Model for the Outrbreak
     of War", /Nature/, v. 309

  Schedrovitzk, GP: (1962) "Methdological Problems of Systems
     Research", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 27-53

  Schneider, Eric D: (1988) "Thermodynamics, Ecological Succession and
     Natural Selection: A Common Thread", in: /Entropy, Information, and
     Evolution/, pp. 107-138, Bruce Weber et. al., Cambridge

          On the thermodynamics of maturing ecosystems, relation to
          Principle of Maximum Entropy Production.

  Shaw, Robert: (1981) "Strange Attractors, Chaotic Behavior and
     Information Flow", /Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung/, v. 36a

     (1984) /Dripping Faucet as a Model Chaotic System/, Aeriel Press,
     Santa Cruz

          Best explanation of the nature of chaotic processes, especially
          with respect to information theory.

  Simon, Herbert: (1965) "Architecture of Complexity", /General
     Systems Yearbook/, v. 10, pp. 63-76

     * (1988) "Predication and Prescription in Systems Modeling",
     NOTE: IIASA manuscript

  Skarda, CA, and Freeman, WJ: (1987) "How Brains Make Chaos Into
     Order", /Behavioral and Brain Sciences/, v. 10

          Interpretation of neurological experiments revealing the
          cybernetic basis of perception, the reliance on chaotic dynamics,
          and the non-locality of mental representations.  Resting as
          chaos, perception as stable attractors, seizures as cyclic

  Skilling, John: (1989) "Classic Maximum Entropy", in: /Maximum
     Entropy and Bayesian Methods/, ed. J. Skilling, pp. 45-52, Kluwer,
     New York

          Mathematical introduction to the traditonal MaxEnt method as
          applied to data analysis.

  Smith, C Ray: (1990) "From Rationality and Consistency to
     Bayesian Probability", in: /Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods/,
     ed. P. Fougere, Kluwer, New York

          Mathematical introduction to the relation between inductive and
          deductive reasoning, Cox's axioms, Bayes' theorem, and Jaynes'
          MaxEnt program.

  Smith, RL: (1989) "Systemic, not just Systematic", /Systems
     Research/, v. 6:1, pp. 27-37

* Svoboda, A: "Model of the Instinct of Self-Preservation", in:
     /MISP: A Simulation of a Model.../, ed. KA Wilson, NOTE: From
     French,Inf.Proc.Mach. 7

  Swenson, Rod: (1989) "Emergent Attractors and Law of Maximum Entropy
     Production", /Systems Research/, v. 6:3, pp. 187-198

          Good references for general evolution.  Discussion of minimax
          entropy production and emergence, biological thermodynamics.

  Szilard, L: (1964) "On Decrease of Enteopy in Thermodynamic Systems by
     Intervention of Intelligent Beings", /Behavioral Science/, v. 9

          Classic first paper on the necessary relation between
          informational and thermodynamic entropies.

  Takahara, Y, and Nakao, B: (1981) "Characterization of
     Interactions", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 7:2, pp. 109-122

  Takahara, Y, and Takai, T: (1985) "Category Theoretical
     Framework of General Systems", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 11:1, pp.

  Thom, Rene: (1970) "Topological Models in Biology", in:
     /Towards a Theoretical Biology/, v. 3, ed. CH Waddington, Aldine,

          On self-simplifying systems.

  Tribus, Myron: (1961) "Information Theory as the Basis for
     Thermostatistics and Thermodynamics", /J. Applied Mechanics/, v. 28,
     pp. 108

          Full description of the derivation of basic thermodynamics from
          Jayne's maximum entropy formalism.

R Turchin, Valentin: (1982) "Institutionalization of Values",
     /Worldview/, v. 11/82

          Review of Turchin's social theory and defense of reviews of
          _Phenomenon of Science_ and _Inertia of Fear_.

     (1987) "Constructive Interpretation of Full Set Theory", /J. of
     Symbolic Logic/, v. 52:1

          Almost complete reconstruction of ZF set theory from a
          constructivist philosophy, including implementation in the REFAL

  Turney, P: (1989) "Architecture of Complexity: A New
     Blueprint", /Synthese/, v. 79:3, pp. 515-542

  Ulanowicz, R, and Hennon, B: (1987) "Life and Production of
     Entropy", /Proc. R. Soc. London/, v. B 232, pp. 181-192

          Excellent: principle of maximum entropy production; positive
          feedback=autocatalysis; lasers as high dissipative, low entropy
          producing systems; nuclear autocatalysis as greatest source of
          entropy production; measurement techniques for biotic entropy
          production; all chemical organization as either extinct or in
          organisms; high efficiency as high entropy production; on metrics
          of evolution.

  v Bertalanfy, Ludwig: (1950) "An Outline of General Systems
     Theory", /British J. of Philosophy of Science/, v. 1, pp.

     (1962) "General Systems Theory - A Criticial Review", /General
     Systems Yearbook/, v. 7, pp. 1-20

* Varela, FG, and Maturana, HR et. al.: (1974) "Autopoiesis: the
     Organization of Living Systems, its Characterization, and a Model",
     /Biosystems/, v. 5, pp. 187-196

          First definition of autopoeisis.

  von Foerster, Heinz: (1960) "On Self-Organizing Systems and
     their Environments", in: /Self-Organizing Systems/, ed. Yovitz and
     Cameron, Pergamon

          Well written, many interesting observations.  Proof of
          meaningless of the term "SOS", first (?) discussion of "growth of
          phase space" route to organization, on relative information,
          order from noise principle.

  von Neumann, John: (1963) "General and Logical Theory of
     Automata", in: /Collected Works/, v. 5, ed. AH Taub, pp. 288-328,

          Classic.  On thermodynamics and fundamental cybernetics,
          digital/analog distinctions and relations in complex systems.

     (1963) "Probability, Logic, and Synthesis of Reliable Organization
     from Unreliable Parts", in: /Collected Works/, v. 5, ed. AH Taub,
     pp. 329-378, Pergamon

          On logics, automata, and information theory.

* Waelchli, F: (1989) "Eleven Theses of General Systems Theory",
     /Systems Research/, NOTE: To appear

R Walker, CC: (1971) "Behavior of a Class of Complex Systems",
     /J. Cybernetics/, v. 1:4, pp. 55-67

          A good example of the use of the computer in discovering systems
          science laws.

  Walker, CC, and Ashby, Ross: (1966) "On Temporal Characteristics of
     Behavior in Certain Complex Systems", /Kybernetik/, v. 3:2, pp.

  Warfield, JN, and Christakis, AN: (1986) "Dimensionality",
     /Systems Research/, v. 3:3, Pergamon, Oxford

R Weaire, D, and Rivier, N: (1984) "Soaps, Cells and Statistics:
     Random Patterns in 2-D", /Contemporary Physics/, v. 25:1, pp.

          Continution of Rivier 1986.

* Weaver, Warren: (1968) "Science and Complexity", /American
     Scientist/, v. 36, pp. 536-544

          From Klir, on organized simplicity, unorganized complexity, and
          organized complexity.

  White, I: (1988) "Limits and Capabilities of Machines: A
     Review", /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man, and Cyb./, v. 18:6, pp.

  Wicken, Jeffrey: (1987) "Entropy and Information: Suggestions
     for a Common Language", /Philosphy of Science/, v. 54:2, pp.

          Solid paper on more modern view of the relation between
          thermodynamics and information theory.

  Wilson, David S: (1989) "Reviving the Superorganism", /J.
     Theor. Bio./, v. 136, pp. 337-356

          On levels of selection, criteria for being an organism, systems
          vs. aggregates.  Wilson is a current SUNY faculty.

  Wolfram, Stephen: (1988) "Complex Systems Theory", in:
     /Emerging Syntheses in Science/, ed. David Pines, pp. 183-190,
     Addison-Wesley, New York

          Example of a more simplistic appeal to entropy as a metric of

  Zadeh, Lofti A: (1958) "On the Identification Problem", /IRE
     Trans. on Circuit Theory/, v. CT-3, pp. 277-281

     * (1962) "From Circuit Theory to Systems Theory", /IRE
     Proceedings/, v. 50, pp. 856-865

     * (1963) "On the Definition of Adaptibility", /IEEE Proceedings/,
     v. 51, pp. 469-470

     (1963) "General Identification Problem", in: /Proceedings of the
     Princeton Conference on the Identification Problem in Communications
     and Control/, pp. 1-17

     (1965) "Fuzzy Sets and Systems", in: /Systems Theory/, ed. J.
     Fox, pp. 29-37, Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn NY

     R (1973) "Outline of a New Approach to Analysis of Complex Sys.",
     /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man and Cyb./, v. 1:1, pp. 28-44

          A motivation for using fuzziness in dealing with very complex
          systems is discussed in detail.

     (1982) "Fuzzy Systems Theory: Framework for Analysis of Buerocratic
     Systems", in: /Sys. Meth. in Social Science Res./, ed. RE Cavallo,
     pp. 25-41, Kluwer-Nijhoff, Boston

R Zeigler, BP: (1974) "Conceptual Basis for Modeling and
     Simulation", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 1:4, pp. 213-228

          A solid systems science conceptual framework for modeling and
          simulation is introduced.

     R (1976) "Hierarchy of Systems Specifications and Problems of
     Structural Inference", in: /PSA 1976/, v. 1, ed. F.Suppe,
     PD Asquith, pp. 227-239, Phil. Sci. Assoc., E. Lansing

          Introduces a hierarchy of systems types (a formal treatment).

  Zeleny, Milan: (1979) "Special Book Review", /Int. J. Gen.
     Sys./, v. 5, pp. 63-71

     (1988) "Tectology", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 14, pp. 331-343

          On Bogdonav, an important historical figure in systems science.

  Zwick, Martin: (1978) "Fuzziness and Catastrophe", in: /Proc.
     of the Int. Conf. of Cyb.andSoc/, pp. 1237-1241, Tokyo/Kyoto

     (1978) "Dialectics and Catastrophe", in: /Sociocybernetics/, ed.
     F.Geyer et. al., pp. 129-155, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hauge,Neth.

     R (1978) "Requisite Variety and the Second Law", in: /Proc. Int.
     Conf. of Cyb. and Soc./, pp. 1065-1068, IEEE Sys. Man Cyb.,

          Establishes the equivalence of Ashby's Requisite Variety Law and
          the second law of thermodynamics.

     (1978) "Quantum Measurement and Godel's Proof", /Speculations in
     Science and Tech./, v. 1, pp. 135-145

     R (1979) "Cusp Catastrophe and Laws of Dialectics", /System and
     Nature/, v. 1, pp. 177-187

          Expression of dialectical concepts (quantity to quality,
          negation, interpenetration of opposites) in terms of catastrophe

     (1982) "Dialectic Thermodynamics", /General Systems Yearbook/, v.
     27, pp. 197-204

     R (1984) "Information, Constraint, and Meaning", in: /Proceedings
     SGSR/, ed. AW Smith, pp. 93-99, Intersystems

          Wonderful treatment of the relation between syntax and semantics
          in information theory.


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C. Joslyn, & F. Heylighen,

Jul 22, 1996 (modified)
July, 1990 (created)


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