Basic Papers on Cybernetics and Systems Science
The following is a list of
references used for the course SS-501, INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS SCIENCE, at the Systems Science Department of SUNY Binghamton in 1990.
All of the classic, "required" papers have been reprinted in the book: Klir G.J. (1992) Facets of Systems Science, (Plenum, New York). You can order photocopies of many papers via the CARL UnCover service, which provides a search through a database containing millions of papers in thousands of academic journals covering all disciplines. Other, specific bibliographic references of books and a selected number of papers can be found in the library database of the Department of Medical Cybernetics and AI at the University of Vienna. A number of more recent books and papers can be found in our bibliography on complex, evolving systems, and in the bibliography of the Principia Cybernetica Project.
Key: * Required
Abraham, Ralph: (1987) "Dynamics and Self-Organization", in:
/Self-Organizing Systems/, ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 599-616, Plenum
Review of the scope and extent of modern dynamics theory,
especially as related to problems in self-organization. Useful
after an elementary understanding of dynamical systems.
Abraham, Ralph, and Shaw, Christophe: (1987) "Dynamics: a
Visual Introduction", in: /Self-Organizing Systems: Emergence/,
ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 543-598, Plenum
Ackoff, Russel: (1979) "Future of Operational Research is
Past", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 241-252
R Arbib, Michael A: (1966) "Automata Theory and Control Theory: A
Rapproachement", /Automatica/, v. 3, pp. 161-189
A unification of automata theory and control theory in a broader
theory of dynamic systems.
Arbib, Michael A, and Rhodes, JL et. al.: (1968) "Complexity and
Graph Complexity of Finite State Machines and Finite Semi-Groups",
in: /Algorithmic Theory of Machines, Languages and Semi-Groups/,
ed. MA Arbib, pp. 127-145, Academic Press, New York
A rigorous formulation of descriptive complexity of systems in
terms of finite state machines.
* Ashby, Ross: (1958) "General Systems Theory as a New
Discipline", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3:1
* (1958) "Requisite Variety and Implications for Control of Complex
Systems", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 83-99
* (1964) "Introductory Remarks at Panel Discussion", in: /Views
in General Systems Theory/, ed. M. Mesarovic, pp. 165-169, Wiley,
(1965) "Measuring the Internal Informational Exchange in a
System", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 5-22
A readable paper that explains how the Shannon entropy can be
used in analyzing systems.
(1968) "Some Consequences of Bremermann's Limit for Information
Processing Systems", in: /Cybernetic Problems in Bionics/, ed.
H Oestreicher et. al, pp. 69-76, Gordon and Breach, New York
(1970) "Information Flows Within Coordinated Systems", /Progress
in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J. Rose, pp. 57-64, Gordon and Breach,
(1972) "Systems and Their Informational Measures", in: /Trends in
General Systems Theory/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 78-97, Wiley, New York,
* (1973) "Some Peculiarities of Complex Systems", /Cybernetic
Medicine/, v. 9:2, pp. 1-6
Atlan, Henri: (1981) "Hierarchical Self-Organization in Living
Systems", in: /Autopoises/, ed. Milan Zeleny, North Holland, New
Auger, Peter: (1989) "Microcanonical Ensembles with
Non-equiprobable States", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 20:3, pp.
Aulin, AY: (1975) "Cybernetics as Foundational Science of
Action", /Cybernetic/, v. 3
* (1979) "Law of Requisite Hierarchy", /Kybernetes/, v. 8, pp.
Bahm, AJ: (1981) "Five Types of Systems Philosophies", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 6
(1983) "Five Systems Concepts of Society", /Behavoral Science/,
(1984) "Holons: Three Conceptions", /Systems Research/, v. 1:2,
Comparison of three system philosophies.
(1986) "Nature of Existing Systems", /Systems Research/, v. 3:3,
Philosophical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions
for systemic processes.
(1988) "Comparing Civilizations as Systems", /Systems Research/,
Macroscopic structural, semantic analysis of cultural systems.
Bailey, Kenneth D: (1984) "Equilibrium, Entropy and
Homeostasis", /Systems Research/, v. 1:1, pp. 25-43
Excellent survey of these concepts in multiple disciplines.
Balakrishnan, AV: "On the State Space Theory of Linear
Systems", /J. Mathematical Analysis and Appl./, v. 14:3, ed.
1966, pp. 371-391
* Barto, AG: (1978) "Discrete and Continuous Model", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 4:3, pp. 163-177
Bennett, Charles H: (1986) "On the Nature and Origin of Complexity
in Discrete, Homogeneous, Locally-Interacting Systems",
/Foundations of Physics/, v. 16, pp. 585-592
On Bennett's measure of algorithmic depth.
Black, M: (1937) "Vagueness: An Exercise in Logical Analysis",
/Philosophy of Science/, v. 4, pp. 427-455
Probably the best discussion of the meaning of vagueness and its
importance in science and philosophy.
* Boulding, Ken: (1956) "General Systems Theory - The Skeleton of
Science", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 11-17
(1968) "Specialist with a Universal Mind", /Management Science/,
v. 14:12, pp. B647-653
* (1974) "Economics and General Systems", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v.
1:1, pp. 67-73
Bovet, DP: (1988) "An Introduction to Theory of Computational
Complexity", in: /Measures of Complexity/, ed. L Peliti, A
Vulpiani, pp. 102-111, Springer-Verlag, New York
Braitenberg, Valentino: "Vehicles: Expirement in Synthetic
Psychology", /IEEE Trans. of Syst., Man, and Cyb./
On the complex, seemingly lifelike behavior of simply designed
* Bremermann, HJ: (1962) "Optimization Through Evolution and
Recombination", in: /Self-Organizing Systems/, ed. MC Yovits et.
al., pp. 93-106, Spartan, Washington DC
(1967) "Quantifiable Aspects of Goal-Seeking Self-Org. Systems",
in: /Progress in Theoretical Biology/, v. M Snell, pp. 59-77,
Academic Press, New York
Brillouin, Leon: (1953) "Negentropy Principle of Information",
/J. of Applied Physics/, v. 24:9, pp. 1152-1163
First Brillouin essay, on the relation between thermodynamic and
* Bunge, Mario: (1978) "General Sys. Theory Challenge to
Classical Philosophy of Science", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1
(1981) "Systems all the Way", /Nature and Systems/, v. 3:1, pp.
Carnap, Rudolph, and Bar-Hillel, Y: (1952) "Semantic
Information", /British J. for Philosopy of Science/, v. 4, pp.
Cavallo, RE, and Pichler, F: (1979) "General Systems
Methodology: Design for Intuition Ampl.", in: /Improving the
Human Condition/, Springer-Verlag, New York
Caws, P: (1974) "Coherence, System, and Structure", /Idealistic
Studies/, v. 4, pp. 2-17
Chaitin, Gregory J: (1975) "Randomness and Mathematical Proof",
/Scientific American/, v. 232:5
(1977) "Algorithmic Information Theory", /IBM J. Res. Develop./,
v. 21:4, pp. 350-359
Introduction of Chaitin's version of Kolmogorov complexity.
(1982) "Godel's Theorem and Information", /Int. J. Theoretical
Physics/, v. 22
* Checkland, Peter: (1976) "Science and Systems Paradigm", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 127-134
Chedzey, Clifford S, and Holmes, Donald S: (1976) "System
Entropies of Markov Chains", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. XXI,
(1977) "System Entropy and the Monotonic Approach to Equilibrium",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 139-142
(1977) "System Entropy of a Discrete Time Probability Function",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 143-146
(1977) "First Discussion of Markov Chain System Entropy Applied
to Physics", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 147-167
Cherniak, Christophr: (1988) "Undebuggability and Cognitive
Science", /Communications of the ACM/, v. 31:4
Like Bremmerman's limit, some simple mathematics on the limits of
Christensen, Ronald: (1985) "Entropy Minimax Multvariate
Statistical Modeling: I", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 11
R Conant, Roger C: (1969) "Information Transfer Required in
Regulatory Processes", /IEEE Trans. on Sys. Sci. and Cyb./, v. 5:4,
A discussion of the use of the Shannon entropy in the study of
R (1974) "Information Flows in Hierarchical Systems", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 1, pp. 9-18
Using classical (Shannon) information theory, it is shown that
hierarchical structures are highly efficient in information
* (1976) "Laws of Information Which Govern Systems", /IEEE Trans.
Sys., Man & Cyb./, v. 6:4, pp. 240-255
* Conant, Roger C, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Every Good Regulator
of Sys. Must Be Model of that Sys.", /Int. J. Systems Science/,
v. 1:2, pp. 89-97
Cornacchio, Joseph V: (1977) "Systems Complexity: A
Bibliography", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3, pp. 267-271
De Raadt, JDR: (1987) "Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety: An
Empirical Study", /Cybernetics and Systems/, v. 18:6, pp.
R Eigen, M, and Schuster, P: (1977) "Hypercycle: A Principle of
Natural Self-Org.", /Naturwissenschaften/, v. 64,65
Classical work on molecular feedback mechanisms.
Engell, S: (1984) "Variety, Information, and Feedback",
/Kybernetes/, v. 13:2, pp. 73-77
Erlandson, RF: (1980) "Participant-Oberver in Systems
Methodologies", /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man, and Cyb./, v. SMC-10:1,
Ferdinand, AE: (1974) "Theory of Systems Complexity", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 19-33
A paper that connects defect probability with systems complexity
through the maximum entropy principle. Also investigates the
relationship between modularity and complexity.
Ford, Joseph: (1986) "Chaos: Solving the Unsolvable, Predicting
the Unpredictable", in: /Chaotic Dynamics and Fractals/,
Fascinating account of the relation between chaotic dynamics, the
limits of observability, constructive mathematics, exsitence and
uniqueness, and the "ideology" of the scientific community.
Gaines, Brian R: "An Overview of Knowledge Acquisition and Transfer",
/IEEE Proc. on Man and Machine/, v. 26:4
GSPS type methods as the general form of all science. Relation
of Klir's GSPS methodology to other inductive methodologies.
R (1972) "Axioms for Adaptive Behavior", /Int. J. of Man-Machine
Studies/, v. 4, pp. 169-199
Perhaps the most comprehenseive foundational work on adaptive
* (1976) "On the Complexity of Causal Models", /IEEE Trans. on
Sys., Man, & Cyb./, v. 6, pp. 56-59
R (1977) "System Identification, Approximation and Complexity",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:145, pp. 145-174
A thorough discussion on the relationship among complexity,
credibiilty, and uncertainty associated with systems models.
* (1978) "Progress in General Systems Research", in: /Applied
General Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 3-28, Plenum, New
* (1979) "General Systems Research: Quo Vadis?", /General Systems
Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 1-9
* (1983) "Precise Past - Fuzzy Future", /Int. J. Man-Machine
Studies/, v. 19, pp. 117-134
* (1984) "Methodology in the Large: Modeling All There Is",
/Systems Research/, v. 1:2, pp. 91-103
R Gallopin, GC: "Abstract Concept of Environment", /Int. J. Gen.
Sys./, v. 7:2, pp. 139-149
A rare discussion of the concept of environment by a well known
Gardner, MR: (1968) "Critical Degenerotes in Large Linear
Systems", /BCL Report/, v. 5:8, EE Dept., U. Ill, Urbana
A report on an experimental investigation whose purpose is to
determine the relationship between stability and connectance of
* Gardner, MR, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Connectance of Large
Dynamic (Cybernetic) Systems", /Nature/, v. 228:5273, pp. 784
Gelfland, AE, and Walker, CC: (1977) "Distribution of Cycle
Lengths in Class of Abstract Sys.", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1,
* Goguen, JA, and Varela, FJ: (1979) "Systems and Distinctions:
Duality and Complementarity", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:1, pp.
Gorelick, George: (1983) "Bogdanov's Tektology: Naure,
Development and Influences", /Studies in Soviet Thought/, v. 26,
Greenspan, D: (1980) "Discrete Modeling in Microcosm and
Macrocosm", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 6:1, pp. 25-45
* Hall, AS, and Fagan, RE: (1956) "Definition of System",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 18-28
Harel, David: (1988) "On Visual Formalisms", /Communications of
the ACM/, v. 31:5
Reasonable, critical extensions of "Venn Diagrams", general
consideration of the representation of multidimensional systems.
Henkind, Steven J, and Harrison, Malcolm C: (1988) "Analysis of
Four Uncertainty Calculi", /IEEE Trans. Man Sys. Cyb./, v. 18:5,
On Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, Fuzzy Set, and MYCIN methods of
Herbenick, RM: (1970) "Peirce on Systems Theory", /Transaction
of the S. Peirce Soc./, v. 6:2, pp. 84-98
R Huber, GP: (1984) "Nature and Design of Post-Industrial
Organizations", /Management Science/, v. 30:8, pp. 928-951
Excellent paper discussing the changing nature of organizations
in the information society.
* Islam, S: (1974) "Toward Integrating Two Systems Theories By
Mesarovic and Wymore", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 35-40
Jaynes, ET: (1957) "Information Theory and Statistical
Mechanics", /Physical Review/, v. 106,108, pp. 620-630
A classic paper. Information theory as a sufficient and elegant
basis for thermodynamics. But does it follow that thermodynamics
is necessarily dependent on information theory, or that entropy
is "just" incomplete knowledge? Compares principle of maximum
entropy with assumptions of ergodicity, metric transitivity,
and/or uniform a priori distributions. Prediction as microscopic
to macroscopic explanation; interpretation as macro to micro.
Johnson, Horton A.: (1970) "Information Theory in Biology After
18 Years", /Science/, v. 6/26/70
Scathing critique of the role of "classical" information theory
in biological science. Most of these criticisms are still
unanswered, if being addressed in a roundabout way (e.g.
algorithmic complexity theory).
Joslyn, Cliff: (1988) "Review: Works of Valentin Turchin",
/Systems Research/, v. 5:1
Short introduction to Turchin's cybernetic theories of universal
* Kampis, G: (1989) "Two Approaches for Defining 'Systems'",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 15, pp. 75-80
Kaufmann, Stuart A: (1969) "Metabolic StabilityandEpigenesis in
Randomly Constructed Genetic Nets", /Journal of Theoretical Biology/,
v. 22, pp. 437-467
(1984) "Emergent Properties in Random Complex Automata",
/Physica/, v. 10D, pp. 145
Kellerman, E: (1968) "Framework for Logical Cont.", /IEEE
Transactions on Computers/, v. E-17:9, pp. 881-884
Klapp, OE: (1975) "Opening and Closing in Open Systems",
/Behav. Sci./, v. 20, pp. 251-257
Philosophy on the dynamics of social processes; entropic
R Klir, George: (1970) "On the Relation Between Cybernetics and
Gen. Sys. Theory", in: /Progress in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J
Rose, pp. 155-165, Gordon and Breach, London
A formal discussion on the relation between the fields of
"cybernetics" and "systems science", concluding that the former
is a subfield of the latter.
(1972) "Study of Organizations of Self-Organizing Systems", in:
/Proc. 6th Int. Congress on Cyb./, pp. 162-186, Wammer, Belgium
(1976) "Ident. of Generative Structures in Empirical Data", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 89-104
(1978) "General Systems Research Movement", in: /Sys. Models for
Decision Modeling/, ed. N Sharif et. al., pp. 25-70, Asian Inst.
* (1985) "Complexity: Some General Observations", /Systems
Research/, v. 2:2, pp. 131-140
* (1985) "Emergence of 2-D Science in the Information Society",
/Systems Resarch/, v. 2:1, pp. 33-41
* (1988) "Systems Profile: the Emergence of Systems Science",
/Systems Research/, v. 5:2, pp. 145-156
Klir, George, and Way, Eileen: (1985) "Reconstructability
Analysis: Aims, Results, Problems", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2,
Introduction to the methods of reconstruction as well as their
relevance to general philosophical problems.
Kolmogorov, AN: (1965) "Three Approaches to the Quantitative Definition
of Information", /Problems of Information Transmission/, v. 1:1,
First introduction of algorithmic meatrics of complexity and
Krippendorf, Klaus: (1984) "Epistemological Foundation for
Communication", /J. of Communication/, v. 84:Su
On the necessary cybernetics of communication.
Krohn, KB, and Rhodes, JL: (1963) "Algebraic Theory of
Machines", in: /Mathematical Theory of Automata/, ed. J. Fox, pp.
341-384, Ploytechnic Press, Brooklyn NY
(1968) "Complexity of Finite Semigroups", /Annals of
Mathematics/, v. 88, pp. 128-160
Layzer, David: (1988) "Growth of Order in the Universe", in:
/Entropy, Information, and Evolution/, ed. Bruce Weber et. al.,
pp. 23-40, MIT Press, Cambridge
On the thermodynamics of cosmological evolution, and the
necessity of "self-organization" in an expanding universe.
* Lendaris, GG: (1964) "On the Definition of Self-Organizing
Systems", /IEEE Proceedings/, v. 52, pp. 324-325
R Lettvin, JY, and Maturana, HR: (1959) "What the Frog's Eye Tell
the Frog's Brain", /Proceedings of the IRE/, v. 47, pp.
Classic early paper in cybernetics, cited as the basis of
"constructive" psychological theory.
Levin, Steve: (1986) "Icosahedron as 3D Finite Element in
Biomechanical Supp.", in: /Proc. 30th SGSR/, v. G, pp. 14-23
R (1989) "Space Truss as Model for Cervical Spine Mechanics",
Startling theory of the necessary foundations of biomechanics in
2-d triangular (heaogonal) plane packing and 3-d dodecahedral
Lloyd, Seth, and Pagels, Heinz: (1988) "Complexity as
Thermodynamic Depth", /Annals of Physics/, v. 188, pp. 1
Perhaps a classic, on their new measure as the difference betwen
fine and coarse entropy. Comparison with other measures of
depth, complexity, and information.
* Lofgren, Lars: (1977) "Complexity of Descriptions of Sys: A
Foundational Study", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 197-214
Madden, RF, and Ashby, Ross: (1972) "On Identification of
Many-Dimensional Relations", /Int. J. of Systems Science/, v. 3,
An early paper contributing to the area that is known now as
Makridakis, S, and Faucheux, C: (1973) "Stability Properties of
General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 18, pp. 3-12
Makridakis, S, and Weinstraub, ER: (1971) "On the Synthesis of
General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 16, pp. 43-54
Margalef, D Ramon: (1958) "Information Theory in Ecology",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3, pp. 36-71
* Marschal, JH: (1975) "Concept of a System", /Philosophy of
Science/, v. 42:4, pp. 448-467
* May, RM: (1972) "Will a Large Complex System be Stable?",
/Nature/, v. 238, pp. 413-414
McCulloch, Warren, and Pitts, WH: "Logical Calculus of Ideas
Immanent in Nervous Activity", /Bull. Math. Biophysics/, v. 5
Classic early work on the neural nets as a logical modeling
McGill, WJ: (1954) "Multivariate Information Transmission",
/Psychometrica/, v. 19, pp. 97-116
Mesarovic, MD: (1968) "Auxiliary Functions and Constructive
Specification of Gen. Sys.", /Mathematical Systems Theory/,
R Miller, James G: (1986) "Can Systems Theory Generate Testable
Hypotheses?", /Systems Research/, v. 3:2, pp. 73-84
On systems theoretic research programs attempting to unify
scientific theory through hypothesized isomorphies among levels
Negoita, CV: (1989) "Review: Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
Information", /Kybernetes/, v. 18:1, pp. 73-74
Good analysis of the significance of fuzzy set theory.
Pattee, Howard: "Evolution of Self-Simplifying Systems", in:
/Relevance of GST/, ed. Ervin Laszlo, George Braziller, New York,
"Instabilities and Information in Biological Self-Organization",
in: /Self Organizing Systems/, ed. F. Eugene Yates, Plenum, New York
(1973) "Physical Problems of Origin of NaturalControl", in:
/Biogenesis, Evolution, Homeostasis/, ed. A. Locker,
Springer-Verlag, New York
(1978) "Complementarity Principle in Biological and Social Structures",
/J. of Social and Biological Structures/, v. 1
(1985) "Universal Principle of Measurement and Language Function in
Evolving Systems", in: /Complexity, Language, and Life/, ed. John
Casti, pp. 268-281, Springer-Verlag, Berlin
(1988) "Simulations, Realizations, and Theories of Life", in:
/Artificial Life/, ed. C Langton, pp. 63-77, Addison-Wesley,
Redwood City CA
Patten, BC: (1978) "Systems Approach to the Concept of
Environment", /Ohio J. of Science/, v. 78:4, pp. 206-222
Pearl, J: (1978) "On Connection Between Complexity and Credibility of
Inferred Models", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:4, pp. 255-264
Theoretical study that shows that credibility of determinstic
models inferred from data tends to increase with data size and
decrease with the complexity of the model.
Pedrycz, W: (1981) "On Approach to the Analysis of Fuzzy
Systmes", /Int. J. of Control/, v. 34, pp. 403-421
Peterson, JL: (1977) "Petri Nets", /ACM Computing Surveys/, v.
9:3, pp. 223-252
R Pippenger, N: (1978) "Complexity Theory", /Scientific
American/, v. 238:6, pp. 114-124
Excellent discussion of one facet of complexity.
* Porter, B: (1976) "Requisite Variety in the Systems and Control
Sciences", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 2:4, pp. 225-229
Prigogine, Ilya, and Nicolis, Gregoire: (1972) "Thermodynamics
of Evolution", /Physics Today/, v. 25, pp. 23-28
Briefer introduction to far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics,
hypercycles, and evolutionary theory. Criticzed as confused.
Rapoport, Anatol: (1962) "Mathemantical Aspects of General
Systems Theory", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 3-11
Rivier, N: (1986) "Structure of Random Cellular Networks and
Their Evolution", /Physica/, v. 23D, pp. 129-137
Brilliant introduction to the theory of the equilibrium
distribution of macroscopic entities (cells) in multiple kinds of
substances: metals, soap suds, and animal and vegetable tissues;
according to a non-thermodynamic maximum entropy law. Subsumes
other laws from these specific disciplines.
(1988) "Statistical Geometry of Tissues", in: /Thermodynamics and
Pattern Formation in Biology/, pp. 415-445, Walter de Gruyter,
* Rosen, Robert: (1977) "Complexity as a Systems Property", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 227-232
* (1978) "Biology and Systems Resarch", in: /Applied General
Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 489-510, Plenum, New York
* (1979) "Anticipatory Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v.
24, pp. 11-23
* (1979) "Old Trends and New Trends in General Systems Resarch",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:3, pp. 173-184
* (1981) "Challenge of Systems Theory", /General Systems
* (1985) "Physics of Complexity", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2, pp.
* (1986) "Some Comments on Systems and Systems Theory", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 13:1, pp. 1-3
Rosenbluth, Arturo, and Wiener, Norbert: (1943) "Behavior,
Purpose, and Teleology", /Philosophy of Science/, v. 10, pp.
Original introduction of teleonomy, teleology, goal-seeking, and
intentionality in cybernetic terms.
Rothstein, J: (1979) "Generalized Entropy, Boundary Conditions,
and Biology", in: /Maximum Entropy Formalism/, ed. RD Levine, pp.
423-468, Cambridge U., Cambridge
On boundary conditions in biology, organisms as "well-informed
heat engines", definition of mutual information, order as an
Sadovsky, V: (1979) "Methodology of Science and Systems
Approach", /Social Science/, v. 10, Moscow
Saperstein, Alvin M.: (1984) "Chaos: A Model for the Outrbreak
of War", /Nature/, v. 309
Schedrovitzk, GP: (1962) "Methdological Problems of Systems
Research", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 27-53
Schneider, Eric D: (1988) "Thermodynamics, Ecological Succession and
Natural Selection: A Common Thread", in: /Entropy, Information, and
Evolution/, pp. 107-138, Bruce Weber et. al., Cambridge
On the thermodynamics of maturing ecosystems, relation to
Principle of Maximum Entropy Production.
Shaw, Robert: (1981) "Strange Attractors, Chaotic Behavior and
Information Flow", /Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung/, v. 36a
(1984) /Dripping Faucet as a Model Chaotic System/, Aeriel Press,
Best explanation of the nature of chaotic processes, especially
with respect to information theory.
Simon, Herbert: (1965) "Architecture of Complexity", /General
Systems Yearbook/, v. 10, pp. 63-76
* (1988) "Predication and Prescription in Systems Modeling",
NOTE: IIASA manuscript
Skarda, CA, and Freeman, WJ: (1987) "How Brains Make Chaos Into
Order", /Behavioral and Brain Sciences/, v. 10
Interpretation of neurological experiments revealing the
cybernetic basis of perception, the reliance on chaotic dynamics,
and the non-locality of mental representations. Resting as
chaos, perception as stable attractors, seizures as cyclic
Skilling, John: (1989) "Classic Maximum Entropy", in: /Maximum
Entropy and Bayesian Methods/, ed. J. Skilling, pp. 45-52, Kluwer,
Mathematical introduction to the traditonal MaxEnt method as
applied to data analysis.
Smith, C Ray: (1990) "From Rationality and Consistency to
Bayesian Probability", in: /Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods/,
ed. P. Fougere, Kluwer, New York
Mathematical introduction to the relation between inductive and
deductive reasoning, Cox's axioms, Bayes' theorem, and Jaynes'
Smith, RL: (1989) "Systemic, not just Systematic", /Systems
Research/, v. 6:1, pp. 27-37
* Svoboda, A: "Model of the Instinct of Self-Preservation", in:
/MISP: A Simulation of a Model.../, ed. KA Wilson, NOTE: From
Swenson, Rod: (1989) "Emergent Attractors and Law of Maximum Entropy
Production", /Systems Research/, v. 6:3, pp. 187-198
Good references for general evolution. Discussion of minimax
entropy production and emergence, biological thermodynamics.
Szilard, L: (1964) "On Decrease of Enteopy in Thermodynamic Systems by
Intervention of Intelligent Beings", /Behavioral Science/, v. 9
Classic first paper on the necessary relation between
informational and thermodynamic entropies.
Takahara, Y, and Nakao, B: (1981) "Characterization of
Interactions", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 7:2, pp. 109-122
Takahara, Y, and Takai, T: (1985) "Category Theoretical
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Almost complete reconstruction of ZF set theory from a
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Excellent: principle of maximum entropy production; positive
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From Klir, on organized simplicity, unorganized complexity, and
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Solid paper on more modern view of the relation between
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Example of a more simplistic appeal to entropy as a metric of
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On Bogdonav, an important historical figure in systems science.
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Expression of dialectical concepts (quantity to quality,
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Wonderful treatment of the relation between syntax and semantics
in information theory.
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