Basic Papers on Cybernetics and Systems Science
The following is a list of
references used for the course SS501, INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS SCIENCE, at the Systems Science Department of SUNY Binghamton in 1990. All of the classic, "required" papers have been reprinted in the book: Klir G.J. (1992) Facets of Systems Science, (Plenum, New York). You can order photocopies of many papers via the CARL UnCover service, which provides a search through a database containing millions of papers in thousands of academic journals covering all disciplines. Other, specific bibliographic references of books and a selected number of papers can be found in the library database of the Department of Medical Cybernetics and AI at the University of Vienna. A number of more recent books and papers can be found in our bibliography on complex, evolving systems, and in the bibliography of the Principia Cybernetica Project.
Key: * Required
R Recommended
Abraham, Ralph: (1987) "Dynamics and SelfOrganization", in:
/SelfOrganizing Systems/, ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 599616, Plenum
Review of the scope and extent of modern dynamics theory,
especially as related to problems in selforganization. Useful
after an elementary understanding of dynamical systems.
Abraham, Ralph, and Shaw, Christophe: (1987) "Dynamics: a
Visual Introduction", in: /SelfOrganizing Systems: Emergence/,
ed. Eugene Yates, pp. 543598, Plenum
Ackoff, Russel: (1979) "Future of Operational Research is
Past", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 241252
R Arbib, Michael A: (1966) "Automata Theory and Control Theory: A
Rapproachement", /Automatica/, v. 3, pp. 161189
A unification of automata theory and control theory in a broader
theory of dynamic systems.
Arbib, Michael A, and Rhodes, JL et. al.: (1968) "Complexity and
Graph Complexity of Finite State Machines and Finite SemiGroups",
in: /Algorithmic Theory of Machines, Languages and SemiGroups/,
ed. MA Arbib, pp. 127145, Academic Press, New York
A rigorous formulation of descriptive complexity of systems in
terms of finite state machines.
* Ashby, Ross: (1958) "General Systems Theory as a New
Discipline", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3:1
* (1958) "Requisite Variety and Implications for Control of Complex
Systems", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 8399
* (1964) "Introductory Remarks at Panel Discussion", in: /Views
in General Systems Theory/, ed. M. Mesarovic, pp. 165169, Wiley,
New York
(1965) "Measuring the Internal Informational Exchange in a
System", /Cybernetica/, v. 1, pp. 522
A readable paper that explains how the Shannon entropy can be
used in analyzing systems.
(1968) "Some Consequences of Bremermann's Limit for Information
Processing Systems", in: /Cybernetic Problems in Bionics/, ed.
H Oestreicher et. al, pp. 6976, Gordon and Breach, New York
(1970) "Information Flows Within Coordinated Systems", /Progress
in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J. Rose, pp. 5764, Gordon and Breach,
London
(1972) "Systems and Their Informational Measures", in: /Trends in
General Systems Theory/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 7897, Wiley, New York,
* (1973) "Some Peculiarities of Complex Systems", /Cybernetic
Medicine/, v. 9:2, pp. 16
Atlan, Henri: (1981) "Hierarchical SelfOrganization in Living
Systems", in: /Autopoises/, ed. Milan Zeleny, North Holland, New
York
Auger, Peter: (1989) "Microcanonical Ensembles with
Nonequiprobable States", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 20:3, pp.
457466
Aulin, AY: (1975) "Cybernetics as Foundational Science of
Action", /Cybernetic/, v. 3
* (1979) "Law of Requisite Hierarchy", /Kybernetes/, v. 8, pp.
259266
Bahm, AJ: (1981) "Five Types of Systems Philosophies", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 6
(1983) "Five Systems Concepts of Society", /Behavoral Science/,
v. 28
(1984) "Holons: Three Conceptions", /Systems Research/, v. 1:2,
pp. 145150
Comparison of three system philosophies.
(1986) "Nature of Existing Systems", /Systems Research/, v. 3:3,
Pergamon, Oxford
Philosophical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions
for systemic processes.
(1988) "Comparing Civilizations as Systems", /Systems Research/,
v. 5:1
Macroscopic structural, semantic analysis of cultural systems.
Bailey, Kenneth D: (1984) "Equilibrium, Entropy and
Homeostasis", /Systems Research/, v. 1:1, pp. 2543
Excellent survey of these concepts in multiple disciplines.
Balakrishnan, AV: "On the State Space Theory of Linear
Systems", /J. Mathematical Analysis and Appl./, v. 14:3, ed.
1966, pp. 371391
* Barto, AG: (1978) "Discrete and Continuous Model", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 4:3, pp. 163177
Bennett, Charles H: (1986) "On the Nature and Origin of Complexity
in Discrete, Homogeneous, LocallyInteracting Systems",
/Foundations of Physics/, v. 16, pp. 585592
On Bennett's measure of algorithmic depth.
Black, M: (1937) "Vagueness: An Exercise in Logical Analysis",
/Philosophy of Science/, v. 4, pp. 427455
Probably the best discussion of the meaning of vagueness and its
importance in science and philosophy.
* Boulding, Ken: (1956) "General Systems Theory  The Skeleton of
Science", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 1117
(1968) "Specialist with a Universal Mind", /Management Science/,
v. 14:12, pp. B647653
* (1974) "Economics and General Systems", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v.
1:1, pp. 6773
Bovet, DP: (1988) "An Introduction to Theory of Computational
Complexity", in: /Measures of Complexity/, ed. L Peliti, A
Vulpiani, pp. 102111, SpringerVerlag, New York
Braitenberg, Valentino: "Vehicles: Expirement in Synthetic
Psychology", /IEEE Trans. of Syst., Man, and Cyb./
On the complex, seemingly lifelike behavior of simply designed
cybernetic robots.
* Bremermann, HJ: (1962) "Optimization Through Evolution and
Recombination", in: /SelfOrganizing Systems/, ed. MC Yovits et.
al., pp. 93106, Spartan, Washington DC
(1967) "Quantifiable Aspects of GoalSeeking SelfOrg. Systems",
in: /Progress in Theoretical Biology/, v. M Snell, pp. 5977,
Academic Press, New York
Brillouin, Leon: (1953) "Negentropy Principle of Information",
/J. of Applied Physics/, v. 24:9, pp. 11521163
First Brillouin essay, on the relation between thermodynamic and
informational entropies.
* Bunge, Mario: (1978) "General Sys. Theory Challenge to
Classical Philosophy of Science", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1
(1981) "Systems all the Way", /Nature and Systems/, v. 3:1, pp.
3747
Carnap, Rudolph, and BarHillel, Y: (1952) "Semantic
Information", /British J. for Philosopy of Science/, v. 4, pp.
147157
Cavallo, RE, and Pichler, F: (1979) "General Systems
Methodology: Design for Intuition Ampl.", in: /Improving the
Human Condition/, SpringerVerlag, New York
Caws, P: (1974) "Coherence, System, and Structure", /Idealistic
Studies/, v. 4, pp. 217
Chaitin, Gregory J: (1975) "Randomness and Mathematical Proof",
/Scientific American/, v. 232:5
(1977) "Algorithmic Information Theory", /IBM J. Res. Develop./,
v. 21:4, pp. 350359
Introduction of Chaitin's version of Kolmogorov complexity.
(1982) "Godel's Theorem and Information", /Int. J. Theoretical
Physics/, v. 22
* Checkland, Peter: (1976) "Science and Systems Paradigm", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 127134
Chedzey, Clifford S, and Holmes, Donald S: (1976) "System
Entropies of Markov Chains", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. XXI,
pp. 7385
(1977) "System Entropy and the Monotonic Approach to Equilibrium",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 139142
(1977) "System Entropy of a Discrete Time Probability Function",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 143146
(1977) "First Discussion of Markov Chain System Entropy Applied
to Physics", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 22, pp. 147167
Cherniak, Christophr: (1988) "Undebuggability and Cognitive
Science", /Communications of the ACM/, v. 31:4
Like Bremmerman's limit, some simple mathematics on the limits of
computational methods.
Christensen, Ronald: (1985) "Entropy Minimax Multvariate
Statistical Modeling: I", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 11
R Conant, Roger C: (1969) "Information Transfer Required in
Regulatory Processes", /IEEE Trans. on Sys. Sci. and Cyb./, v. 5:4,
pp. 334338
A discussion of the use of the Shannon entropy in the study of
regulation.
R (1974) "Information Flows in Hierarchical Systems", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 1, pp. 918
Using classical (Shannon) information theory, it is shown that
hierarchical structures are highly efficient in information
processing.
* (1976) "Laws of Information Which Govern Systems", /IEEE Trans.
Sys., Man & Cyb./, v. 6:4, pp. 240255
* Conant, Roger C, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Every Good Regulator
of Sys. Must Be Model of that Sys.", /Int. J. Systems Science/,
v. 1:2, pp. 8997
Cornacchio, Joseph V: (1977) "Systems Complexity: A
Bibliography", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3, pp. 267271
De Raadt, JDR: (1987) "Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety: An
Empirical Study", /Cybernetics and Systems/, v. 18:6, pp.
517536
R Eigen, M, and Schuster, P: (1977) "Hypercycle: A Principle of
Natural SelfOrg.", /Naturwissenschaften/, v. 64,65
Classical work on molecular feedback mechanisms.
Engell, S: (1984) "Variety, Information, and Feedback",
/Kybernetes/, v. 13:2, pp. 7377
Erlandson, RF: (1980) "ParticipantOberver in Systems
Methodologies", /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man, and Cyb./, v. SMC10:1,
pp. 1619
Ferdinand, AE: (1974) "Theory of Systems Complexity", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 1933
A paper that connects defect probability with systems complexity
through the maximum entropy principle. Also investigates the
relationship between modularity and complexity.
Ford, Joseph: (1986) "Chaos: Solving the Unsolvable, Predicting
the Unpredictable", in: /Chaotic Dynamics and Fractals/,
Academic Press
Fascinating account of the relation between chaotic dynamics, the
limits of observability, constructive mathematics, exsitence and
uniqueness, and the "ideology" of the scientific community.
Gaines, Brian R: "An Overview of Knowledge Acquisition and Transfer",
/IEEE Proc. on Man and Machine/, v. 26:4
GSPS type methods as the general form of all science. Relation
of Klir's GSPS methodology to other inductive methodologies.
R (1972) "Axioms for Adaptive Behavior", /Int. J. of ManMachine
Studies/, v. 4, pp. 169199
Perhaps the most comprehenseive foundational work on adaptive
systems.
* (1976) "On the Complexity of Causal Models", /IEEE Trans. on
Sys., Man, & Cyb./, v. 6, pp. 5659
R (1977) "System Identification, Approximation and Complexity",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:145, pp. 145174
A thorough discussion on the relationship among complexity,
credibiilty, and uncertainty associated with systems models.
* (1978) "Progress in General Systems Research", in: /Applied
General Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 328, Plenum, New
York
* (1979) "General Systems Research: Quo Vadis?", /General Systems
Yearbook/, v. 24, pp. 19
* (1983) "Precise Past  Fuzzy Future", /Int. J. ManMachine
Studies/, v. 19, pp. 117134
* (1984) "Methodology in the Large: Modeling All There Is",
/Systems Research/, v. 1:2, pp. 91103
R Gallopin, GC: "Abstract Concept of Environment", /Int. J. Gen.
Sys./, v. 7:2, pp. 139149
A rare discussion of the concept of environment by a well known
ecologist.
Gardner, MR: (1968) "Critical Degenerotes in Large Linear
Systems", /BCL Report/, v. 5:8, EE Dept., U. Ill, Urbana
A report on an experimental investigation whose purpose is to
determine the relationship between stability and connectance of
linear systems.
* Gardner, MR, and Ashby, Ross: (1970) "Connectance of Large
Dynamic (Cybernetic) Systems", /Nature/, v. 228:5273, pp. 784
Gelfland, AE, and Walker, CC: (1977) "Distribution of Cycle
Lengths in Class of Abstract Sys.", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:1,
pp. 3945
* Goguen, JA, and Varela, FJ: (1979) "Systems and Distinctions:
Duality and Complementarity", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:1, pp.
3143
Gorelick, George: (1983) "Bogdanov's Tektology: Naure,
Development and Influences", /Studies in Soviet Thought/, v. 26,
pp. 3757
Greenspan, D: (1980) "Discrete Modeling in Microcosm and
Macrocosm", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 6:1, pp. 2545
* Hall, AS, and Fagan, RE: (1956) "Definition of System",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 1, pp. 1828
Harel, David: (1988) "On Visual Formalisms", /Communications of
the ACM/, v. 31:5
Reasonable, critical extensions of "Venn Diagrams", general
consideration of the representation of multidimensional systems.
Henkind, Steven J, and Harrison, Malcolm C: (1988) "Analysis of
Four Uncertainty Calculi", /IEEE Trans. Man Sys. Cyb./, v. 18:5,
pp. 700714
On Bayesian, DempsterShafer, Fuzzy Set, and MYCIN methods of
uncertainty management.
Herbenick, RM: (1970) "Peirce on Systems Theory", /Transaction
of the S. Peirce Soc./, v. 6:2, pp. 8498
R Huber, GP: (1984) "Nature and Design of PostIndustrial
Organizations", /Management Science/, v. 30:8, pp. 928951
Excellent paper discussing the changing nature of organizations
in the information society.
* Islam, S: (1974) "Toward Integrating Two Systems Theories By
Mesarovic and Wymore", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 1:1, pp. 3540
Jaynes, ET: (1957) "Information Theory and Statistical
Mechanics", /Physical Review/, v. 106,108, pp. 620630
A classic paper. Information theory as a sufficient and elegant
basis for thermodynamics. But does it follow that thermodynamics
is necessarily dependent on information theory, or that entropy
is "just" incomplete knowledge? Compares principle of maximum
entropy with assumptions of ergodicity, metric transitivity,
and/or uniform a priori distributions. Prediction as microscopic
to macroscopic explanation; interpretation as macro to micro.
Johnson, Horton A.: (1970) "Information Theory in Biology After
18 Years", /Science/, v. 6/26/70
Scathing critique of the role of "classical" information theory
in biological science. Most of these criticisms are still
unanswered, if being addressed in a roundabout way (e.g.
algorithmic complexity theory).
Joslyn, Cliff: (1988) "Review: Works of Valentin Turchin",
/Systems Research/, v. 5:1
Short introduction to Turchin's cybernetic theories of universal
evolution.
* Kampis, G: (1989) "Two Approaches for Defining 'Systems'",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 15, pp. 7580
Kaufmann, Stuart A: (1969) "Metabolic StabilityandEpigenesis in
Randomly Constructed Genetic Nets", /Journal of Theoretical Biology/,
v. 22, pp. 437467
(1984) "Emergent Properties in Random Complex Automata",
/Physica/, v. 10D, pp. 145
Kellerman, E: (1968) "Framework for Logical Cont.", /IEEE
Transactions on Computers/, v. E17:9, pp. 881884
Klapp, OE: (1975) "Opening and Closing in Open Systems",
/Behav. Sci./, v. 20, pp. 251257
Philosophy on the dynamics of social processes; entropic
metaphors.
R Klir, George: (1970) "On the Relation Between Cybernetics and
Gen. Sys. Theory", in: /Progress in Cybernetics/, v. 1, ed. J
Rose, pp. 155165, Gordon and Breach, London
A formal discussion on the relation between the fields of
"cybernetics" and "systems science", concluding that the former
is a subfield of the latter.
(1972) "Study of Organizations of SelfOrganizing Systems", in:
/Proc. 6th Int. Congress on Cyb./, pp. 162186, Wammer, Belgium
(1976) "Ident. of Generative Structures in Empirical Data", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:2, pp. 89104
(1978) "General Systems Research Movement", in: /Sys. Models for
Decision Modeling/, ed. N Sharif et. al., pp. 2570, Asian Inst.
Tech., Bangkok
* (1985) "Complexity: Some General Observations", /Systems
Research/, v. 2:2, pp. 131140
* (1985) "Emergence of 2D Science in the Information Society",
/Systems Resarch/, v. 2:1, pp. 3341
* (1988) "Systems Profile: the Emergence of Systems Science",
/Systems Research/, v. 5:2, pp. 145156
Klir, George, and Way, Eileen: (1985) "Reconstructability
Analysis: Aims, Results, Problems", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2,
pp. 141163
Introduction to the methods of reconstruction as well as their
relevance to general philosophical problems.
Kolmogorov, AN: (1965) "Three Approaches to the Quantitative Definition
of Information", /Problems of Information Transmission/, v. 1:1,
pp. 17
First introduction of algorithmic meatrics of complexity and
information.
Krippendorf, Klaus: (1984) "Epistemological Foundation for
Communication", /J. of Communication/, v. 84:Su
On the necessary cybernetics of communication.
Krohn, KB, and Rhodes, JL: (1963) "Algebraic Theory of
Machines", in: /Mathematical Theory of Automata/, ed. J. Fox, pp.
341384, Ploytechnic Press, Brooklyn NY
(1968) "Complexity of Finite Semigroups", /Annals of
Mathematics/, v. 88, pp. 128160
Layzer, David: (1988) "Growth of Order in the Universe", in:
/Entropy, Information, and Evolution/, ed. Bruce Weber et. al.,
pp. 2340, MIT Press, Cambridge
On the thermodynamics of cosmological evolution, and the
necessity of "selforganization" in an expanding universe.
* Lendaris, GG: (1964) "On the Definition of SelfOrganizing
Systems", /IEEE Proceedings/, v. 52, pp. 324325
R Lettvin, JY, and Maturana, HR: (1959) "What the Frog's Eye Tell
the Frog's Brain", /Proceedings of the IRE/, v. 47, pp.
19401951
Classic early paper in cybernetics, cited as the basis of
"constructive" psychological theory.
Levin, Steve: (1986) "Icosahedron as 3D Finite Element in
Biomechanical Supp.", in: /Proc. 30th SGSR/, v. G, pp. 1423
R (1989) "Space Truss as Model for Cervical Spine Mechanics",
NOTE: Manuscript
Startling theory of the necessary foundations of biomechanics in
2d triangular (heaogonal) plane packing and 3d dodecahedral
space packing.
Lloyd, Seth, and Pagels, Heinz: (1988) "Complexity as
Thermodynamic Depth", /Annals of Physics/, v. 188, pp. 1
Perhaps a classic, on their new measure as the difference betwen
fine and coarse entropy. Comparison with other measures of
depth, complexity, and information.
* Lofgren, Lars: (1977) "Complexity of Descriptions of Sys: A
Foundational Study", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 197214
Madden, RF, and Ashby, Ross: (1972) "On Identification of
ManyDimensional Relations", /Int. J. of Systems Science/, v. 3,
pp. 343356
An early paper contributing to the area that is known now as
reconstructibility analysis.
Makridakis, S, and Faucheux, C: (1973) "Stability Properties of
General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 18, pp. 312
Makridakis, S, and Weinstraub, ER: (1971) "On the Synthesis of
General Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 16, pp. 4354
Margalef, D Ramon: (1958) "Information Theory in Ecology",
/General Systems Yearbook/, v. 3, pp. 3671
* Marschal, JH: (1975) "Concept of a System", /Philosophy of
Science/, v. 42:4, pp. 448467
* May, RM: (1972) "Will a Large Complex System be Stable?",
/Nature/, v. 238, pp. 413414
McCulloch, Warren, and Pitts, WH: "Logical Calculus of Ideas
Immanent in Nervous Activity", /Bull. Math. Biophysics/, v. 5
Classic early work on the neural nets as a logical modeling
tool.
McGill, WJ: (1954) "Multivariate Information Transmission",
/Psychometrica/, v. 19, pp. 97116
Mesarovic, MD: (1968) "Auxiliary Functions and Constructive
Specification of Gen. Sys.", /Mathematical Systems Theory/,
v. 2:3
R Miller, James G: (1986) "Can Systems Theory Generate Testable
Hypotheses?", /Systems Research/, v. 3:2, pp. 7384
On systems theoretic research programs attempting to unify
scientific theory through hypothesized isomorphies among levels
of analysis.
Negoita, CV: (1989) "Review: Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and
Information", /Kybernetes/, v. 18:1, pp. 7374
Good analysis of the significance of fuzzy set theory.
Pattee, Howard: "Evolution of SelfSimplifying Systems", in:
/Relevance of GST/, ed. Ervin Laszlo, George Braziller, New York,
"Instabilities and Information in Biological SelfOrganization",
in: /Self Organizing Systems/, ed. F. Eugene Yates, Plenum, New York
(1973) "Physical Problems of Origin of NaturalControl", in:
/Biogenesis, Evolution, Homeostasis/, ed. A. Locker,
SpringerVerlag, New York
(1978) "Complementarity Principle in Biological and Social Structures",
/J. of Social and Biological Structures/, v. 1
(1985) "Universal Principle of Measurement and Language Function in
Evolving Systems", in: /Complexity, Language, and Life/, ed. John
Casti, pp. 268281, SpringerVerlag, Berlin
(1988) "Simulations, Realizations, and Theories of Life", in:
/Artificial Life/, ed. C Langton, pp. 6377, AddisonWesley,
Redwood City CA
Patten, BC: (1978) "Systems Approach to the Concept of
Environment", /Ohio J. of Science/, v. 78:4, pp. 206222
Pearl, J: (1978) "On Connection Between Complexity and Credibility of
Inferred Models", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 4:4, pp. 255264
Theoretical study that shows that credibility of determinstic
models inferred from data tends to increase with data size and
decrease with the complexity of the model.
Pedrycz, W: (1981) "On Approach to the Analysis of Fuzzy
Systmes", /Int. J. of Control/, v. 34, pp. 403421
Peterson, JL: (1977) "Petri Nets", /ACM Computing Surveys/, v.
9:3, pp. 223252
R Pippenger, N: (1978) "Complexity Theory", /Scientific
American/, v. 238:6, pp. 114124
Excellent discussion of one facet of complexity.
* Porter, B: (1976) "Requisite Variety in the Systems and Control
Sciences", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 2:4, pp. 225229
Prigogine, Ilya, and Nicolis, Gregoire: (1972) "Thermodynamics
of Evolution", /Physics Today/, v. 25, pp. 2328
Briefer introduction to farfromequilibrium thermodynamics,
hypercycles, and evolutionary theory. Criticzed as confused.
Rapoport, Anatol: (1962) "Mathemantical Aspects of General
Systems Theory", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 311
Rivier, N: (1986) "Structure of Random Cellular Networks and
Their Evolution", /Physica/, v. 23D, pp. 129137
Brilliant introduction to the theory of the equilibrium
distribution of macroscopic entities (cells) in multiple kinds of
substances: metals, soap suds, and animal and vegetable tissues;
according to a nonthermodynamic maximum entropy law. Subsumes
other laws from these specific disciplines.
(1988) "Statistical Geometry of Tissues", in: /Thermodynamics and
Pattern Formation in Biology/, pp. 415445, Walter de Gruyter,
New York
* Rosen, Robert: (1977) "Complexity as a Systems Property", /Int.
J. Gen. Sys./, v. 3:4, pp. 227232
* (1978) "Biology and Systems Resarch", in: /Applied General
Systems Research/, ed. GJ Klir, pp. 489510, Plenum, New York
* (1979) "Anticipatory Systems", /General Systems Yearbook/, v.
24, pp. 1123
* (1979) "Old Trends and New Trends in General Systems Resarch",
/Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 5:3, pp. 173184
* (1981) "Challenge of Systems Theory", /General Systems
Bulletin/
* (1985) "Physics of Complexity", /Systems Research/, v. 2:2, pp.
171175
* (1986) "Some Comments on Systems and Systems Theory", /Int. J.
Gen. Sys./, v. 13:1, pp. 13
Rosenbluth, Arturo, and Wiener, Norbert: (1943) "Behavior,
Purpose, and Teleology", /Philosophy of Science/, v. 10, pp.
1824
Original introduction of teleonomy, teleology, goalseeking, and
intentionality in cybernetic terms.
Rothstein, J: (1979) "Generalized Entropy, Boundary Conditions,
and Biology", in: /Maximum Entropy Formalism/, ed. RD Levine, pp.
423468, Cambridge U., Cambridge
On boundary conditions in biology, organisms as "wellinformed
heat engines", definition of mutual information, order as an
entropy measure.
Sadovsky, V: (1979) "Methodology of Science and Systems
Approach", /Social Science/, v. 10, Moscow
Saperstein, Alvin M.: (1984) "Chaos: A Model for the Outrbreak
of War", /Nature/, v. 309
Schedrovitzk, GP: (1962) "Methdological Problems of Systems
Research", /General Systems Yearbook/, v. 11, pp. 2753
Schneider, Eric D: (1988) "Thermodynamics, Ecological Succession and
Natural Selection: A Common Thread", in: /Entropy, Information, and
Evolution/, pp. 107138, Bruce Weber et. al., Cambridge
On the thermodynamics of maturing ecosystems, relation to
Principle of Maximum Entropy Production.
Shaw, Robert: (1981) "Strange Attractors, Chaotic Behavior and
Information Flow", /Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung/, v. 36a
(1984) /Dripping Faucet as a Model Chaotic System/, Aeriel Press,
Santa Cruz
Best explanation of the nature of chaotic processes, especially
with respect to information theory.
Simon, Herbert: (1965) "Architecture of Complexity", /General
Systems Yearbook/, v. 10, pp. 6376
* (1988) "Predication and Prescription in Systems Modeling",
NOTE: IIASA manuscript
Skarda, CA, and Freeman, WJ: (1987) "How Brains Make Chaos Into
Order", /Behavioral and Brain Sciences/, v. 10
Interpretation of neurological experiments revealing the
cybernetic basis of perception, the reliance on chaotic dynamics,
and the nonlocality of mental representations. Resting as
chaos, perception as stable attractors, seizures as cyclic
attractos.
Skilling, John: (1989) "Classic Maximum Entropy", in: /Maximum
Entropy and Bayesian Methods/, ed. J. Skilling, pp. 4552, Kluwer,
New York
Mathematical introduction to the traditonal MaxEnt method as
applied to data analysis.
Smith, C Ray: (1990) "From Rationality and Consistency to
Bayesian Probability", in: /Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods/,
ed. P. Fougere, Kluwer, New York
Mathematical introduction to the relation between inductive and
deductive reasoning, Cox's axioms, Bayes' theorem, and Jaynes'
MaxEnt program.
Smith, RL: (1989) "Systemic, not just Systematic", /Systems
Research/, v. 6:1, pp. 2737
* Svoboda, A: "Model of the Instinct of SelfPreservation", in:
/MISP: A Simulation of a Model.../, ed. KA Wilson, NOTE: From
French,Inf.Proc.Mach. 7
Swenson, Rod: (1989) "Emergent Attractors and Law of Maximum Entropy
Production", /Systems Research/, v. 6:3, pp. 187198
Good references for general evolution. Discussion of minimax
entropy production and emergence, biological thermodynamics.
Szilard, L: (1964) "On Decrease of Enteopy in Thermodynamic Systems by
Intervention of Intelligent Beings", /Behavioral Science/, v. 9
Classic first paper on the necessary relation between
informational and thermodynamic entropies.
Takahara, Y, and Nakao, B: (1981) "Characterization of
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Takahara, Y, and Takai, T: (1985) "Category Theoretical
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133
Thom, Rene: (1970) "Topological Models in Biology", in:
/Towards a Theoretical Biology/, v. 3, ed. CH Waddington, Aldine,
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On selfsimplifying systems.
Tribus, Myron: (1961) "Information Theory as the Basis for
Thermostatistics and Thermodynamics", /J. Applied Mechanics/, v. 28,
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Full description of the derivation of basic thermodynamics from
Jayne's maximum entropy formalism.
R Turchin, Valentin: (1982) "Institutionalization of Values",
/Worldview/, v. 11/82
Review of Turchin's social theory and defense of reviews of
_Phenomenon of Science_ and _Inertia of Fear_.
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Almost complete reconstruction of ZF set theory from a
constructivist philosophy, including implementation in the REFAL
language.
Turney, P: (1989) "Architecture of Complexity: A New
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Ulanowicz, R, and Hennon, B: (1987) "Life and Production of
Entropy", /Proc. R. Soc. London/, v. B 232, pp. 181192
Excellent: principle of maximum entropy production; positive
feedback=autocatalysis; lasers as high dissipative, low entropy
producing systems; nuclear autocatalysis as greatest source of
entropy production; measurement techniques for biotic entropy
production; all chemical organization as either extinct or in
organisms; high efficiency as high entropy production; on metrics
of evolution.
v Bertalanfy, Ludwig: (1950) "An Outline of General Systems
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* Varela, FG, and Maturana, HR et. al.: (1974) "Autopoiesis: the
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First definition of autopoeisis.
von Foerster, Heinz: (1960) "On SelfOrganizing Systems and
their Environments", in: /SelfOrganizing Systems/, ed. Yovitz and
Cameron, Pergamon
Well written, many interesting observations. Proof of
meaningless of the term "SOS", first (?) discussion of "growth of
phase space" route to organization, on relative information,
order from noise principle.
von Neumann, John: (1963) "General and Logical Theory of
Automata", in: /Collected Works/, v. 5, ed. AH Taub, pp. 288328,
Pergamon
Classic. On thermodynamics and fundamental cybernetics,
digital/analog distinctions and relations in complex systems.
(1963) "Probability, Logic, and Synthesis of Reliable Organization
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On logics, automata, and information theory.
* Waelchli, F: (1989) "Eleven Theses of General Systems Theory",
/Systems Research/, NOTE: To appear
R Walker, CC: (1971) "Behavior of a Class of Complex Systems",
/J. Cybernetics/, v. 1:4, pp. 5567
A good example of the use of the computer in discovering systems
science laws.
Walker, CC, and Ashby, Ross: (1966) "On Temporal Characteristics of
Behavior in Certain Complex Systems", /Kybernetik/, v. 3:2, pp.
100108
Warfield, JN, and Christakis, AN: (1986) "Dimensionality",
/Systems Research/, v. 3:3, Pergamon, Oxford
R Weaire, D, and Rivier, N: (1984) "Soaps, Cells and Statistics:
Random Patterns in 2D", /Contemporary Physics/, v. 25:1, pp.
5999
Continution of Rivier 1986.
* Weaver, Warren: (1968) "Science and Complexity", /American
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From Klir, on organized simplicity, unorganized complexity, and
organized complexity.
White, I: (1988) "Limits and Capabilities of Machines: A
Review", /IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man, and Cyb./, v. 18:6, pp.
917938
Wicken, Jeffrey: (1987) "Entropy and Information: Suggestions
for a Common Language", /Philosphy of Science/, v. 54:2, pp.
176193
Solid paper on more modern view of the relation between
thermodynamics and information theory.
Wilson, David S: (1989) "Reviving the Superorganism", /J.
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On levels of selection, criteria for being an organism, systems
vs. aggregates. Wilson is a current SUNY faculty.
Wolfram, Stephen: (1988) "Complex Systems Theory", in:
/Emerging Syntheses in Science/, ed. David Pines, pp. 183190,
AddisonWesley, New York
Example of a more simplistic appeal to entropy as a metric of
order.
Zadeh, Lofti A: (1958) "On the Identification Problem", /IRE
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* (1962) "From Circuit Theory to Systems Theory", /IRE
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* (1963) "On the Definition of Adaptibility", /IEEE Proceedings/,
v. 51, pp. 469470
(1963) "General Identification Problem", in: /Proceedings of the
Princeton Conference on the Identification Problem in Communications
and Control/, pp. 117
(1965) "Fuzzy Sets and Systems", in: /Systems Theory/, ed. J.
Fox, pp. 2937, Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn NY
R (1973) "Outline of a New Approach to Analysis of Complex Sys.",
/IEEE Trans. on Sys., Man and Cyb./, v. 1:1, pp. 2844
A motivation for using fuzziness in dealing with very complex
systems is discussed in detail.
(1982) "Fuzzy Systems Theory: Framework for Analysis of Buerocratic
Systems", in: /Sys. Meth. in Social Science Res./, ed. RE Cavallo,
pp. 2541, KluwerNijhoff, Boston
R Zeigler, BP: (1974) "Conceptual Basis for Modeling and
Simulation", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 1:4, pp. 213228
A solid systems science conceptual framework for modeling and
simulation is introduced.
R (1976) "Hierarchy of Systems Specifications and Problems of
Structural Inference", in: /PSA 1976/, v. 1, ed. F.Suppe,
PD Asquith, pp. 227239, Phil. Sci. Assoc., E. Lansing
Introduces a hierarchy of systems types (a formal treatment).
Zeleny, Milan: (1979) "Special Book Review", /Int. J. Gen.
Sys./, v. 5, pp. 6371
(1988) "Tectology", /Int. J. Gen. Sys./, v. 14, pp. 331343
On Bogdonav, an important historical figure in systems science.
Zwick, Martin: (1978) "Fuzziness and Catastrophe", in: /Proc.
of the Int. Conf. of Cyb.andSoc/, pp. 12371241, Tokyo/Kyoto
(1978) "Dialectics and Catastrophe", in: /Sociocybernetics/, ed.
F.Geyer et. al., pp. 129155, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hauge,Neth.
R (1978) "Requisite Variety and the Second Law", in: /Proc. Int.
Conf. of Cyb. and Soc./, pp. 10651068, IEEE Sys. Man Cyb.,
Tokyo/Kyoto
Establishes the equivalence of Ashby's Requisite Variety Law and
the second law of thermodynamics.
(1978) "Quantum Measurement and Godel's Proof", /Speculations in
Science and Tech./, v. 1, pp. 135145
R (1979) "Cusp Catastrophe and Laws of Dialectics", /System and
Nature/, v. 1, pp. 177187
Expression of dialectical concepts (quantity to quality,
negation, interpenetration of opposites) in terms of catastrophe
theory.
(1982) "Dialectic Thermodynamics", /General Systems Yearbook/, v.
27, pp. 197204
R (1984) "Information, Constraint, and Meaning", in: /Proceedings
SGSR/, ed. AW Smith, pp. 9399, Intersystems
Wonderful treatment of the relation between syntax and semantics
in information theory.
Copyright© 1996 Principia Cybernetica 
Referencing this page


Author
C. Joslyn, & F. Heylighen,
Date
Jul 22, 1996 (modified) July, 1990 (created)

