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Self-sufficiency concerning information. Independent SYSTEMs are closed to information. variation outside the boundaries of independent systems do not affect the variation within. There is no input. In statistics, two variables are independent if the concurrence of their values is mere chance, e.g., zero correlation. In logic and set theory, two variables are independent if the relation between them is the mere cartesian product of two properties. Two individuals are independent if each does what he wants to do, neither having to consider the behavior of the other. A clock is designed to be independent of variation in temperature, geographical location including gravity while it is correlated with other clocks and communicating its output states to an observer. Independent systems may be a source but not the receiver of communication (see closed system, closure). (Krippendorff)).