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(1) A structure, configuration, or pattern of physical, biological, sociological, or psychological phenomena so integrated as to constitute a functional unit with properties not derivable from its parts in summation. This German word is considered by many system thinkers (e.g., von Bertalanffy, Angyal) to convey more accurately the concept of organized wholes than the word system. (Steven Rogers) (2) The organized structure or pattern that makes up all of a person's experience of some system. This integrated view is more than the sum of the individual elements by which the field can be described. (Iberall)
A configuration, originally limited to visual forms, or a pattern which is seen as a whole unity. The nearest English equivalent to this German word is whole. The concept has given rise to various theories of perception and learning, educational philosophies and schools of thought, e.g., gestalt psychology, general systems theory and holism. (Krippendorff)
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